The composition of seven major fatty acids from contains about 2. Gas chromatogram of cod liver oil showed that it Soybean oil consisted of about 6. After transesterification, the omega-3 fatty acids composition of each vegetable oil was: soybean oil, 4.
Keywords: Omega-3 fatty acids, gas chromatography, lipase-catalyzed transesterification, cod liver oil, vegetable oil Introduction Alpha-linolenic acid ALA , eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA are long chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs belong to the family of omega-3 fatty acids.
ALA is a carbon fatty acid with 3 double bonds n-3 , EPA is a carbon fatty acid with 5 double bonds n-3 , and DHA is a carbon fatty acid with 6 double bonds n However, EPA and DHA cannot be synthesized de novo by the body and therefore are derived from the diet or dietary supplements. Most of the vegetable oils, on the other hand, contain little or no of these fatty acids . Vegetable oils are rich in another type of PUFA called omega-6 fatty acids which are not interconvertible with omega-3 fatty acids.
Apart from the many benefits of fish oils, they are not consumed on a regular basis as an essential part of the diet. Vegetable oils, on the other hand are more commonly consumed as cooking oils or as one of the ingredients in confectionery fats.
One of the ways to do this is by transesterification. Transesterification has an ability to alter the physical characteristics of fats and oils by rearranging their chemical composition resulting in fats and oils having completely different properties than the original fats or oils . Transesterification reactions using enzymes as catalysts are more favourable than chemical catalysts.
Enzymes in general are very efficient catalysts, environmentally acceptable, can react under mild conditions and are not bound to their natural role . In this study, analysis was done on seven major fatty acids i. The degree of omega-3 fatty acids incorporated into the three vegetable oils were determined.
Transesterification was done by using immobilized R. Experimental Materials All the oils analyzed cod liver oil, corn oil, sunflower oil and soybean oil were commercially available. All solvents used were of analytical grade. At the end of the reaction 6 hours , acetone:ethanol mixture was added and the enzyme was filtered out.
Prior to fatty acid analysis, free fatty acids were removed by titrating the transesterified mixture with 0. The hydrolytic activity of the enzyme was calculated from this according to the formula by Ghazali et al. Fatty acids analysis solution in methanol to each 0.
The mixture was left to stratify till upper layer became clear. The gas chromatograph was connected to a HP integrator model A. Split ratio was Results and Discussion Gas chromatograms of cod liver oil, non-transesterified soybean, sunflower and corn oils are shown in Figure 1. It was also observed that the peak for stearic acid i. The peaks formed on the chromatograms in Figure 1 correspond to the fatty acids composition of cod liver oil and non-transesterified vegetable oils listed in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively.
Of the seven fatty acids analyzed in cod liver oil, Most of the non-transesterified vegetable oils studied, consisted of higher percentage of PUFA than the cod liver oil Table 2. The only omega-3 fatty acid present in these vegetable oils is ALA. These observations are in line with the findings by Bruinsma and Taren  and Drummond and Brefere . The chromatograms of transesterified vegetable oils i. The chromatograms plus the degree of hydrolysis calculated after transesterification for each vegetable oil has shown that transesterification did occur.
According to Willis and Marangoni , minimum hydrolytic activity was important to ensure that appropriate amount of water was only used for removal of fatty acyl groups from the glycerol backbone, the first step in any transesterification reaction. The degree of hydrolysis was the highest in transesterified corn oil i. This was followed by sunflower oil with 2. As shown in Table 2, transesterification has altered the fatty acid composition of all the vegetable oils studied.
Table 1: Fatty acids composition of cod liver oil Fatty acid Wt. However, a decrease in ALA was observed in transesterified soybean oil. In comparison, the extent of DHA incorporation was the highest with soybean oil i. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that enzymatic transesterification can be applied to produce a new and improved vegetable oils with enhanced nutritional value.
However, more studies are to be carried out to determine if these vegetable oils are ready for human consumption. References 1. Hazra, A. Pharmacology and therapeutic potential of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA in fish oils. Indian J. Uauy, R. Marine oils: the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids.
Bruinsma, K. Dieting, essential fatty acid intake and depression. Nutrition Rev. Drummond, K. Nutrition for Foodservice and Culinary Professionals. John Wiley and Sons: New York. Willis, W. Enzymatic interesterification.
Akoh and D. Min eds. Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology. Marcel Dekker Inc. Faber, K. Ghazali, H. Enzymatic transesterification of palm olein with nonspecific and 1,3-specific lipases. Oil Chem. Key words: Marine sponges, chemical profiling, spicules, Aaptos Abstract The ability to rapidly identify known or undesirable compounds in natural products is a critical step in an efficiently run natural products discovery program.
Due to the co-existence of multi-components, identification, authentication as well as standardization of natural products was a challenging task. An effective way in research area of natural products was to construct the chromatographic chemical profiling also called chromatographic fingerprint. Marine sponges are potential sources of many unique metabolites, including cytotoxic and anticancer compounds.
Many species of marine sponge are taxonomically not established and by examining the morphological criteria alone is insufficient. The profiles of each specimen were compared to each other from the same and different localities. Several specimens with identical profile were in agreement with their morphological criteria suggesting that the profile can be used to distinguish them from other group of sponges. The potential of marine sponges as a source of novel molecules has not been extensively investigated.
As compared to other marine lifeforms, bioactive compounds have been detected especially frequently in sponges. Sponges produce toxins and other compounds to repel and deter predators 2, 3. There are many species of marine sponge which taxonomically not established.
Furthermore, sponge of the same genus also not so easy to differentiate due to plasticity of their morphological features 5. Intraspecific variation in chemistry known as chemical profiling has been documented extensively among terrestrial plants but not so popular in marine sponge research. The characters used for species identification are mainly morphological, and it seems that morphology alone might be too limited and time consuming for the identification and authentication of species boundaries in many sponges.
In order to identify and characterize chemical constituents of sponges as well as to establish the identification of species, the used of chemical profiling allows resources to be kept on tract and dereplication of undesired result due to confusion over species variation can be avoided 6. In this paper, we presented our preliminary finding of this study. Microscopical investigation was done on spicules and spicule arrangements on each of the specimen.
The organisms were immediately frozen after collection and dried in oven 50oC prior extraction. Methanol extract of 17 specimens Table 1 were subjected to thin layer chromatography. Mobile phase: chloroform: methanol 8. Plates visualized under UV nm and UV nm without treatment. Results and Discussion Microscopical Identification Sponge identification involving a series of investigation including shape, size, colour live and preserved , texture, mucus production and smell, surface ornamentation and skeletal structure.
Spicules and spicule arrangement are major characteristic to indicate classes of sponge taxonomy. Microscopical analysis revealed that all spicules of 17 specimens are silicate, indicating class Demospongiae. They possessed a strongyloxeas as a primary spicules, some spicules are straight or curves styles or subtylostyles. Ectosomal spicules styles, rare of subtylostyles Figure 1. They possess characteristically two main spot at Rf 0.
This finding also in agreement with morphology characters as well as the microscopic examination. The divergence in chemical composition between sponges collected at the same locality is demonstrated suggesting that apart from morphology examination, chemical profiling also provide useful results. As for the specimen that give same profile, which identify as Aaptos sp.
The investigation is in progress to characterize and establish a chromatographic profiling which could provide the images of chemical components of not only the establishment of marker compounds but also other active or potential bioactive constituents. References 1 Belarbi, E. Cultivation of explants of marine sponge Crambe crambe in closed systems. Biomol Eng Feeding deterrence in sponge. The role of toxicity, physical defenses, energetic contents, and life-history stage.
J Exp mar Biol Ecol Does the odor from sponges of genus Ircinia protect them from fish predators? J Chem Ecol Optimizing the formation of in vitro sponge primorphs from the Chinese sponge Styletella agminata Ridley. J Biotechnol Application of liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the identification of natural products. J Chrom B The seeds oil of seven Malaysian local fruits, i.
These fruits were collected from various locations around Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography after converting the oils into methyl ester of their fatty acids. Results showed that the seeds oil of Lansium domesticum varities duku, duku langsat and langsat were high in unsaturated fatty acids. For instance, oil from duku langsat seed contained While the other seeds like rambutan, rambutan gading and durian contained In conclusion, the major saturated fatty acids found in the seed oil were palmitic, stearic and arachidic acids, while the major unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids.
Minyak daripada tujuh jenis buah-buahan tempatan Malaysia, iaitu tiga varieti langsat Lansium domesticum duku, duku langsat dan langsat , durian Durio zibethinus , rambutan Nephelium lappaceum , rambutan gading Nephelium cuspidatum Blume dan manggis Garcinia mangostana telah dianalisis komposisi asid lemaknya. Buah-buahan tersebut diperolehi dari sekitar Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. Komposisi asid lemak ditentukan dengan menggunakan kromatografi gas setelah lemaknya ditukarkan kepada ester metal asid lemak.
Hasil kajian menunjukkan minyak daripada varieti Lansium domesticum duku, duku langsat dan langsat tinggi kandungan asid lemak tak tepu. Sedangkan minyak daripada biji lain seperti rambutan, rambutan gading dan durian mengandungi Kesimpulannya, asid lemak tepu utama dalam minyak biji buah-buahan tempatan ialah palmitik, stearik dan arakidik, manakala asid lemak tak tepu utama pula ialah asid oleik dan linoleik. Keyword: local fruit seed, fatty acid composition and seed.
Introduction In recent years, researches on nutrition have been focused mostly on calories and energy conversion factors of foods consumed. These developments stimulate research on the fats and oils since they have the highest energy content compared to proteins and carbohydrates .
Today, fats and oils collectively known as triacylglycerols are recognized for their nutritional, functional and organoleptic properties. Fats and oils have held unique, universal appeal that is well entrenched in the history of culinary science and yet to be matched by other food component . Fats and oils are obtained from both animal and plant sources, only those from plant sources are cholesterol free In evaluating the nutritional quality of oil, the data on the fatty acid composition are very important .
Medium chain triacylglycerols MCT are the basis of new group of fats known as structured lipids SLs which have found application in clinical nutrition and treatment of diseases . Within the class of structured lipids, two subgroups of fats must be recognized — the medium chain triglycerides MCTs and long chain triglycerides LCTs. SLs are triacylglycerols TAGs that have been modified by incorporation of new fatty acids, restructured to change the position of fatty acids.
Basically SLs contain mixture of short-, medium-, and long fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone for specific functionality  Fig. SL are developed for specific purposes, such as to produce a reduced calorie fats and enhance the nutritive value of the foods. SLs is panacea for all disease or metabolic conditions. To achieve maximum effect, SLs will have to be designed on a case-by-case basis for targeting a specific disease conditions or for food use .
MCTs are much more readily metabolized for energy than LCTs but have low tendency to be incorporated into adipose tissues to form depot fat. Current applications of MCTs take advantage of their quick absorption and oxidation. MCTs should not to be given alone, however. The medium chain fatty acids could be easily obtained from either coconut oil which contain 4. While the tropical fruits seeds may be the main sources of long fatty acids. Therefore, the aims of the present investigation are to identify the best sources of long chain fatty acid from local fruit seeds.
In order to select the best and high level of long chain as arachidic acid sources, it is imperative to study the fatty acids composition of Malaysian local fruit seeds. Experimental Raw Materials Seven Malaysian local fruits, i. The rinds and pulps of the fruits were removed manually and the seeds were collected. About 10kg of each fresh fruits were used for the studies.
Figure 1 shows the scheme of oil extraction applied. The n-hexane extract was filtered and the oil recovered in a rotary evaporator. Two ml of methylation solution a mixture of sodium methoxide and methanol was added into 0. Analysis was carried out with nitrogen as carrier gas at 1. The percentage of each peak was calculated as the percentage of the total area of all the peaks . The results of the present study are means of duplicate analyses from each samples collected.
Thermal properties Thermal properties of the extracted oils were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimeter DSC e Metler Toledo equipped with a thermal analysis data station. The calorimeter was calibrated with indium melting point, An empty capsule was used as a reference. Registration of the melting profile. Registration of the crystallization profile. Temperatures of the melting and crystallization were determined based on the onset and end set readings in the thermograms obtained.
Result and Discussion Fatty acid composition The fatty acid compositions of seven Malaysian local seed fruits are presented in Table 1. Fatty acids greater than eicosaenoic acid C were not detected in the seed oils. Similarly low molecular weight acids lauric and miristic were absent in all samples investigated.
However, palmitic C acid was detected in all samples with the highest content was found in langsat Stearic acids C also found in all samples but the highest level was found in mangosteen Arachidic acid C present in all samples investigated with rambutan is the highest It is evident from the results that the main saturated fatty acids found in the local seed oils were palmitic, stearic and arachidic acids. Palmitoleic acid C was detected in all samples and the highest 1.
The major unsaturated acids in the seed oils investigated were oleic C and linoleic C acids with the latter was found in the greater proportion. Linoleic acid was found the highest While for the oleic acid C , the highest Eicosenoic acid C was detected in all samples except in rambuatn gading oil. The seed oils of all seven samples investigated had lowest level of polyenoic fatty acids than monoenoic fatty acids.
From the average figures presented, it appears that there are not significant differences in the arachidic acid content of rambutan Thermal behavior of seed oils The melting profiles of the seed oils extracted were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry DSC and the result is shown in Table 2. Results show that during melting, there are low melting fractions of mangosteen However there was no low melting fraction for langsat. The highest melting fractions for duku, duku langsat, langsat rambutan, mangosteen, durian and rambutan gading were This showed that the fats from mangosteen was the hardest and langsat the softest.
As shown in Table 2, all the fats studied showed two maxima for melting. The first one corresponds to the low melting fraction, and the second one corresponds to the higher melting fraction. While for the crystallization, most of the samples analyzed showed more than one peaks except duku, duku langsat and langsat. The first peaks of crystallization of rambutan, rambutan gading durian, mangosteen, duku and duku langsat, were The second peaks crystallization of rambutan, rambutan gading, durian and mangosteen, were 3.
E C 4. Kinsella, J. Food Technology. Akoh, C. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc 3. Ezeagu, I. Kennedy, J. Structured Lipids: Fats of the Future. Structured Lipids. Structured Lipids- enzymatic approach. Gunstone, F. The Lipid Handbook. Timms, R. Dairy, Technol.
Hagemann, J. Crystallization and Polymorphism of Fat and Fatty Acids. Marcel Dekker, N. Kertas ini membincangkan dua jenis sisa industri iaitu gypsum merah dan abu terbang. Gypsum merah adalah bahan buangan daripada industri pengeluaran pigmen putih, TiO2, daripada bijih ilmenit. Abu terbang pula adalah sisa daripada loji tenaga yang menggunakan arang batu sebagai bahan bakar.
Mikrograf SEM bagi gypsum merah menunjukkan sifatnya yang amorfus, padat dangan saiz partikel yang tidak seragam. Kehadiran sebatian besi memberikan warna amorfus, partikel berbentuk sfera dan mempunyai taburan saiz partikel yang luas bergaris pusat purata, 7. Kemudian untuk abu terbang dari loji tenaga Kapar, ia dikenalpasti bersifat 5. Dua sebatian utama yang boleh dijumpai didalam abu terbang ialah silikon dioksida SiO2 dan mullit, Al6Si2O Hasil keputusan pencirian terdahulu bagi kedua-dua gypsum merah dan abu terbang, beberapa potensi penggunaannya telah dicadangkan antaranya sebagai bahan dalam licau gerlis , komponen tanah liat dan sebagainya.
Kajian awalan telah dijalankan untuk mencari kegunaan gypsum merah dan abu terbang. Kedua-duanya bahan tersebut menunjukkan potensi untuk digunakan sebagai licau gerlis untuk permukaan jubin seramik. This paper discusses two industrial waste i. Red gypsum is a waste product in the manufacture of the white pigment, TiO2, from the ore ilmenite.
The latter i. The SEM micrograph for the red gypsum showed that it is amorphous, compact with non-uniform particles sizes. The presence of the iron compound gives the reddish coloration to the red gypsum. As a result from the earlier characterization of both red gypsum and fly ash, several potential applications of these wastes have been proposed i. Preliminary investigation has been done to find an application for both red gypsum and fly ash.
Both red gypsum and fly ash have shown potential to be used as glaze on ceramic tiles. Keyword: red gypsum, fly ash, waste, glaze. Introduction Red gypsum is an industrial waste material, which is produced in abundant from industries that synthesized the white pigment, titanium dioxide TiO2 , using the sulfate method. Red gypsum is reddish brown in color with texture like that of semi-dried mud or clay.
From a previous study, red gypsum was shown to be microcrystalline to amorphous in nature with non-uniform particles. In addition, it was also revealed that red gypsum comprised mainly of hydrated and anhydrous CaSO4 and Fe2O3.
Glaze is a thin, nearly homogeneous layer composed of molten silicate mixture, which is formed by inorganic oxides and silica. Its appearances can be either lustrous or matt, and could be colored or colorless. Major constituents of glaze are silica, flux and refractory materials. In this particular study, both red gypsum and fly ash were investigated for their potentials as glaze on tiles.
A standard zinc-based glaze formulation was identified in which the calcium carbonate and silica in the original formulation was substituted with red gypsum and fly ash respectively. Experimental Standard Zinc Oxide Glaze Zinc oxide, calcium carbonate, potash feldspar, kaolin and silica were weighed according to the standard zinc- based glaze formulation and placed in a plastic container.
The mixture was then placed in an electric mortar. Glaze Preparation Method Red Gypsum Glaze The method used is similar to that of the standard zinc-based glaze however; red gypsum was used in place of calcium carbonate Table 2. Table 2.
However, here fly ash was added into the original composition. The percentage of fly ash added was shown in Table 3. Refer Table 4. Table 4. Pure Red Gypsum Glaze When the tile glazed with red gypsum only was fired, the surface was found to be slightly shiny, orange to dark brown in color and black spots present. These dark spots were presumably Fe2O3 that hardened upon cooling. Red Gypsum Glaze before firing Figure 4. The original grey color of the fly ash before firing turned to light brown.
Powdery surface observed in the center of the tile may have resulted from incomplete melting of the fly ash which is known to contain mainly silica with a high melting point o C. Figure 5. Fly Ash Glaze before firing Figure 6.
The glazed tiles were found to be glossy and homogeneous. However, some crazing cracks were also observed and the surface was not smooth. The occurrence of glaze crazing is identified to be due to the differences in thermal expansion between the tiles and the glaze.
Red Gypsum Incorporated in Zinc Oxide Glaze In this particular glaze preparation, calcium carbonate in the standard zinc oxide glaze was replaced by red gypsum which is mainly calcium sulfate. This switch was done considering the similarity of both red gypsum and calcium carbonate. Three different variations of the glaze formulations were performed as shown in Table 2.
The best glazed tile in terms of physical appearance is from formulation number 1 which contains The surface of the tile is glossy, intense brown in color with homogenous surface finish. The appearances of the tiles with the other formulations are described in Table 5. Table 5. Appearance of Glaze 1 Very smooth, glossy homogeneous surface, brown color 2 Rough, matt, not homogeneous with white-gray color 3 Rough, semi-glossy and quite homogeneous, light gray color Figure 6.
Formulation No. Tile number 1 with the fly ash replacing all the silica was found to be glossy, rough with intense pale yellow color surface. Some crazing is observed on tile number 2. Tile number 3 has similar characteristics to the previous two tiles. The only difference is that tile number 3 had noticeable air bubbles underneath the glaze. However, in term of surface defect crazing , it was observed that tiles applied with thinner layer of glaze showed less crazing.
Table 6. The glaze produced was dark brown in color, semi-glossy, smooth and quite homogenous. Conclusion Based on the above study, it can be concluded that red gypsum and fly ash in addition to other materials can be converted into new, useful and commercially viable products. As far as our study is concern, red gypsum and fly ash when added to other compounds components of standard zinc oxide glaze in this case can be used as glaze on tiles. In our study, the best-glazed formulation incorporating red gypsum was found to contain This particular glaze formulation produces glossy, smooth, colored and defect free surface.
Further work will concentrate on increasing the red gypsum content without compromising on the physical appearance of the glaze. As for the glaze that uses zinc oxide formulation with fly ash added to it refer to Table 3 , the fly ash showed great potential to be utilized as glaze. However, several common glaze defects such as crazing and air bubbles were observed on the glazed tiles.
This renders further investigation to eliminate the defects and thus achieving a much better quality glaze. The glaze formulation which incorporates both red gypsum and fly ash also showed potential. The glazed tiles obtained were dark brown in color, glossy, smooth and homogenous.
These results showed the potential of both waste materials i. Apart from the visual examinations discussed in this paper, there are several other tests that will be carried out on these glazed tiles i. The results of these analyses will be discussed in future publications. Special thanks are directed to Dr.
References  Chemical composition of red gypsum sample from TiO2 landfill. Hani and Ibrahim Che Omar1. Hydrolysis of nicotinamide solution in 0. Limit of quantification for nicotinamide and nicotinic acid was 0. A comparison between the HPLC method and microbiological assay for the determination of total niacin content in food samples was also made. The results obtained by microbiological assay was found to be relatively higher than HPLC except for biscuit samples.
Keywords: niacin, nicotinamide HPLC, microbiological assay. Introduction The niacin vitamers found in foodstuff includes nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, nicotinyl-esters or niacytin, and the coenzyme forms nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP.
Nicotinic acid is present in a wide variety of foods. In cereals, nicotinic acid is normally bound to the macromolecules. Free nicotinic acid, unless fortified, usually present as a minor component in most food Eitenmiller et al. Autoclaving in mineral acid solutions as well as combining autoclaving with enzymatic reactions are the common extraction procedures to liberate bound niacin in food samples.
Food sources of niacin are cereals and seeds which contain primarily nicotinic acid, whereas fish and meat contain primarily nicotinamide Rusell, Total niacin refers to amount of niacin extracted by autoclaving food samples in alkaline solutions, in 1 M or 0.
Either acid or alkaline hydrolysis can be used to convert nicotinamide into nicotinic acid. Acid hydrolysis is usually used to estimate the biologically active form of niacin while alkaline hydrolysis releases non bio-available vitamers Sallin et al. Roy et al. Egberg , Ward et al. High performance liquid chromatography HPLC method in determining niacin by UV detection had been performed by Skurray in meat using enzymic hydrolysates followed by treatment with NaOH and potassium bromide in sample preparation.
The LC system used reversed phase C18 column and a mobile phase containing heptane sulfonate as ion pair modifier in acetate buffer. Hamano et al. Chase et al. Hirayama and Maruyama used basic extraction for vinegar and jams. The extracts were subjected to an anion exchange column followed by a cation cartridge column before being injected onto Asahipak NH2P column for analysis.
The extracts need to be evaporated with rotary evaporator before passing through each SPE column. Hirayama then used the same basic extract to determine total niacin in vinegar. Tyler and Genzale developed an analysis method to determine total niacin in beef, semolina and cheese. Windahl, et al. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of autoclaving time in acid and alkaline solutions for the conversion of nicotinamide into nicotinic acid. This paper also describes an HPLC method for the determination of total niacin in several types of food samples with comparison to microbiological assay method.
Materials and Methods 2. Sodium dodecyl sulphate and oxalic acid were purchased from BDH chemicals. These solutions were prepared fresh daily. Bread sample was dried freeze dried; biscuit and groundnut were homogenized in a waring blender. These samples were then placed in clean and dry glass containers and kept in the dessicator.
Banana and chicken meat samples were also homogenised but kept in portions of 5 g each in aluminium foil, stored frozen and were completely thawed before use. Triplicate solutions were made for each set. The cooled solutions were diluted to 50 ml with deionised water and mixed thoroughly. The solutions were centrifuged at rpm for 15 minutes and filtered through 0.
To deionised water were added. The cooled extract was then made up to 50 ml volume with deionized water. The resultant solutions were centrifuged at rpm for 15 minutes. The last 3 ml solution eluted from the cartridge was collected and filtered into hplc vial for analysis. The pH of the solution was 2. Result and Discussion 3.
RSD for peak area calculation were 0. Linearity of standard curve obtained for mixed solutions of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide was between 0. Fig 1. Windahl et al. Rees found only partial hydrolysis of nicotinamide in acid solution. Sallin et al. However this researcher experienced of interferences co -eluted with the nicotinic peak in the LC system used. Tyler and Shrago ,Van Niekerk et. NaOH treatments normally release a large part of non bio-available forms of niacin in food.
If acid is used to hydrolyze niacin, It is necessary to run both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide standard when quantifying free niacin.. Table 1: Hydrolysis of nicotinamide into nicotinic acid in acid and alkaline condition autoclaved at oC. Fig 3a. HPLC chromatogram of nicotinamide Fig 3b. HPLC chromatogram of nicotinamide Fig 3d. The results are given in Table 2.
The regression analysis of 32 samples assayed by microbiological and 29 samples by HPLC is shown in graph 2. Compared to the reported certified mean value of From the results, it was observed that niacin analyzed by microbiological assay was found to be relatively higher than those analyzed by HPLC in all samples except for biscuit. Sallin, et al. The milk powder and banana samples contained some of the interferences which were not removed by cleaned up C18 EC cartridge but it did not interfere with the nicotinic acid peak.
Redbull drink fig. Furthermore using non phosphate buffer mobile phase make it easy to maintain the LC column and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate is less expensive as compare to other Pair Ion Chromatography reagents. Microbiological assay and HPLC method gave results in fair agreement. AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edition. Chase, G. W Jr, Landen, W. Liquid chromatographic analysis of niacin in fortified food products. Egberg, D. C Eitenmiller, R. Jr CRC Press.
Hamano, T. Simultaneous determination of niacin and nicotinamide in meats by HPLC. Journal Chromatography, , Hengen, N and Vries J. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. In Modern Chromatographic Analysis of vitamins. Vol Edited by the Leehee A. D, Lambert, W. E and Ruyter, M. Hirayama, S Hirayama, M and Maruyama, M Determination of small amount of niacin in foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography.
Juraja, S. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Lahely, S. Fluorometric determination of niacin in foods by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with post-column derivatization. Food Chemistry. Rees, D. Determination of nicotinamide and pyridoxine in fortified food products by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
Journal Micronutrient Analysis ,5 , Russell, L. F Water Soluble Vitamins. In Handbook of Food Analysis Vol 1. Edited by Nollet, L. Marcel Dekker Inc, N. Sallin, C. G Comparison of microbiological and HPLC-fluoroscence detection methods for determination of niacin in fortified food products. Roy, R. Automated analysis of water soluble vitamins in food. Food Technol, 30, A rapid method for selectivity determining small amounts of niacin, riboflavin and thiamine in Foods.
Food Chemistry, 7, Tyler, T. A and Genzale, J. A Liquid chromatographic determination of total niacin in beef, semolina and cottage cheese. Journal of AOAC , 73 3 , A and Shrago,R. R, Determination of niacin in cereal samples by Chromatography,3, Van Niekerk,P. Comparison of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and microbiological method forthe determination of niacin in foods.
Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 32, Ward, C. Determination of niacin in cereals, meat and selected foods by capillary electrophoresis and HPLC. Food Chemistry, 60 4 , Windahl, K. C and Ward, C. Determination of niacin in selected food by capillary electrophoresis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Acid Extractions. Food Chemistry, 65, Wood, R. Quality in The Food Analysis Laboratory. Fusarium sp.
Perencatan kulat paling berkesan terhadap ekstrak damar dengan pelarut xilena. Manakala luas perencatan Penicillium sp. Walaubagaimanapun, luas perencatan kulat adalah berbeza di antara setiap hasil ekstrak yang digunakan. Pengenalan Damar merupakan sejenis resin semulajadi yang boleh didapati dengan banyaknya daripada pokok-pokok yang ketinggiannya melebihi seratus kaki.
Pengeluaran secara komersial dilakukan di beberapa negara seperti Indonesia, Amerika Syarikat dan China. Di Indonesia, damar merupakan salah satu komoditi eksport yang utama di mana jumlah pengeluarannya di antara — tan setahun yang bernilai U. Damar dikeluarkan secara traditional iaitu dengan menetak ataupun menoreh batang atau dahan pokok. Damar akan meleleh keluar daripada pokok dan mengambil masa lebih kurang sebulan untuk membeku.
Biasanya damar mempunyai aroma yang tertentu dan baunya berbeza di antara satu sama lain. Pengeluaran damar secara saintifik telah dilakukan oleh beberapa penyelidik untuk menambahkan pengeluaran damar dengan menggunakan bahan kimia peransang seperti asid sulfurik  dan asid 2-kloroetilfosforik [3,4]. Secara tradisinya, damar digunakan oleh orang asli sebagai jamung, menampal perahu dan ramuan ubat-ubatan .
Di Indonesia, damar mata kucing ataupun nama saintifiknya Shorea Javanica digunakan di dalam industri pembuatan plastik, varnish, perusahaan batik dan digunakan sebagai ramuan ubat traditional . Dalam eksperimen ini beberapa jenis damar telah digunakan iaitu damar meranti sarang punai, damar meranti kepong, damar kempas dan rosin untuk ujikaji keaktifan antikulatnya terhadap tujuh jenis kulat pengurai cat iaitu Curvularia sp. Pemilihan damar ini dilakukan kerana pokoknya sangat keras dan tahan terhadap serangan serangga.
Damar yang berbentuk ketulan keras diambil sekitar pangkal pokok dan dilakukan pembersihan dengan membuang resin yang telah teroksida. Seterusnya dibasuh dengan air dan dikeringkan. Warna ketulan damar adalah coklat kehitaman dan warna tersebut bertukar menjadi kekuningan selepas dihancurkan.
Kemudian g damar dibungkus dengan menggunakan kertas turas dan diekstrak dengan menggunakan soxhlet selama 24 jam. Pada setiap hasil pengekstrakan ini, ia dipekatkan dengan pengwap hampa gas yang berputar dan kemudiannya dikeringkan dalam oven pengering pada takat didih pelarut tersebut. Kaedah peresapan agar digunakan untuk menguji resin terhadap pertumbuhan kulat [7,8]. Terdapat 3 peringkat telah digunakan iaitu penyediaan agar Potato Dextrose PDA , pensterilan dan pensubkulturan.
Selepas semua larut, ia diautoklaf pada suhu oC selama 15 minit. Untuk menguji keberkesanan resin ini, 2. Seterusnya agar PDA ini dituang ke dalam piring petri dan dibiarkan membeku lebih kurang 10 minit. Cakera kertas turas yang telah dicelup dengan pelarut yang mengandungi ekstrak dengan kepekatan 0. Bagi pelarut etanol dan etil asetat, pelarut ini kurang sesuai digunakan kerana hasil pengekstrakannya adalah berkeladak dan tidak lutsinar. Pertumbuhan kulat pada permukaan penglitup mengakibatkan kerosakan dan penguraian lapisan penglitup dan ini menyebabkan kegagalan fungsi penglitup tersebut .
Sedangkan serangan kulat ke atas kayu merupakan salah satu faktor utama yang menyebabkan kerosakan kayu . Keputusan yang diperolehi menunjukkan bahawa zon perencatan hanya terdapat disekitar cakera yang dicelupkan dengan resin semulajadi tetapi tidak pada cakera yang dicelupkan di dalam pelarut sahaja iaitu kawalan. Ini menujukkan bahawa ekstrak damar semulajadi yang digunakan iaitu damar meranti sarang punai, damar meranti kepong, rosin dan damar kempas mempunyai kesan positif terhadap pertumbuhan kulat Curvularia sp.
Walaubagaimanapun keberkesanan setiap damar semulajadi ini adalah berbeza bagi setiap pelarut yang telah digunakan dan ia juga memberikan kesan yang berbeza bagi setiap kulat ini . Daripada Jadual 2, 3 dan 4 di dapati bahawa perencatan kulat Curvularia sp Rajah 2.
Rajah 1 , Trichoderma sp. Luas perencatan ekstrak damar dengan pelarut xilena memberikan perencatan terbesar bagi Penicillium sp. Rajah 1. Bagi damar kempas keluasan perencatan Penicillium sp. Ekstrak damar meranti kepong dengan pelarut xilena memberikan keluasan perencatan terluas bagi kulat Penicillium sp. Manakala ekstrak damar meranti sarang punai dengan pelarut xilena memberikan keluasan terbesar perencatannya terhadap kulat Penicillium sp.
Keluasan perencatan kulat Curvularia sp. Rhizopus sp. Bagi pengektrakan rosin dengan xilena pula, keluasan perencatan menurun dari Penicillium sp. Di antara ekstrak yang memberikan kesan perencatan negatif adalah ekstrak damar kempas terhadap Curvularia sp. Ini menunjukkan bahawa pelarut memainkan kesan yang utama dalam proses pengekstrakan.
Ini menunjukkan bahawa bahan aktif yang dapat merencatkan kulat tidak dapat diekstrak ataupun hanya sedikit terekstrak daripada damar-damar ini. Ini menunjukkan bahawa pelarut xilena merupakan pelarut yang terbaik yang boleh mengekstrakan bahan aktif yang boleh merencatkan kulat daripada damar tersebut. Pokok meranti adalah merupakan di antara spesies-spesies pokok yang menghasilkan kayu yang keras dan tahan terhadap organisma penebuk atau perosak lain seperti anai-anai.
Ini mungkin kerana pokok meranti mengandungi bahan kimia yang boleh menghalang serangan organisma perosak tersebut. Bultman dan rakan  pernah melapurkan bahawa terdapat kayu tropika yang boleh tahan terhadap serangan anai-anai dan serangan kulat sehingga bulan. Bahan kimia yang membolehkan daya tahan terhadap serangan makhluk perosak ini adalah kerana damar cengal mengandungi komponen berfinolik.
Ini dibuktikan oleh Hill  yang menyatakan bahawa komponen berfenolik adalah toksik kepada kulat dan serangga. Bultman dan rakan  juga pernah melaporkan bahawa bahan semulajadi yang menyebabkan perencatan kulat berkemungkinan mengandungi bahan berpolifenol. Jadi kajian seterusnya juga adalah untuk mengenal pasti bahan yang dapat merancatkan kulat tersebut dan adakah ia sejenis fenolik seperti yang dikatakan oleh beberapa penyelidik yang terdahulu.
Penghargaan Penghargaan yang tinggi diucapkan kepada Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris kerana meluluskan geran penyelidikan jangka pendek iaitu Ucapan ribuan terima kasih kepada semua pembantu makmal kerana kerjasama yang diberikan untuk menyiapkan projek penyelidikan ini. Jusuf Jafarsidik. Jenis-jenis pohon penghasil resin damar dan penyebarannya di Indonesia.
Tapping of oleo-resin from Dipterocarpus kerrii. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 3 4 , Adam, C. Traditional and Chemical techniques for stimulation of Shorea Javanica Dipterocarpacea resin exudation in Sumatra. Economic Botany 44 4 , 4. Kadir, A. Treatment of Dipterocarpus kerrii with ethrel.
Malaysia Forester 49 : Burkill, I. Adictionary of economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Volumes 2. Crown agents for the colonies, London. Leguminosae important source of gums and resins. Economic Botany Information Service, Lucknow.
Darah, I and Lakshmy, R. Journal of Bioscience, 15, Darah, I. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 45, Alexopoulos, C. Introduction Mycology, 3rd Ed.. John Wiley and Son, New York. Jansen, M. Oil Col. Zeno, W. Malaysia Applied Biology, 21 1 , Ibrahim Jantan and Abu Said Ahmad Bultman, J. Biotropica, 8 2 , 71 Hill, R. ISSN 15 1. Thin films TiO2 coated on pyrex glass cylinders were prepared using the sol-gel dip coating technique.
In order to determine the optimum dopant ratio, photooxidation of dichloromethane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were conducted using all catalyst samples. Therefore, although dopants affect the photoactivity of TiO2, the effects due to the type and concentration of dopants and VOCs used can not be ignored. Key words: Photocatalysis, photooxidation, TiO2 Introduction Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a group of important environmental pollutants and are a source of danger to the environment.
Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as dichloromethane, chloroform, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene are widely distributed in the environment. Malereibetrie Rolf Czersowsky Local business. Malereibetrieb Local business. Malereibetrieb A. Fischer Company. Malereibetrieb Alexander Peter House painting.
Malereibetrieb Andre Mahrt Home improvement. Malereibetrieb Arndt Local business. Malereibetrieb Ates GmbH Local business. Malereibetrieb Baumann Local business. Malereibetrieb Baumann xD Local business. Malereibetrieb Behn Local business. Malereibetrieb Bellendorf Local business. Malereibetrieb Bernd Bauer Local business. Malereibetrieb Bernhard Lohbeck e.
House painting. Malereibetrieb Bley House painting. Malereibetrieb Blumoser Local business. Malereibetrieb Borchert Bomlitz Local business. Malereibetrieb Bratzler Local business. Malereibetrieb Bruns House painting. Malereibetrieb Claudiu Sacadati Local business. Malereibetrieb Clemenz Local business. Malereibetrieb Dietrich House painting. Malereibetrieb Dirkes Local business.
Malereibetrieb Dorpmund Legal service. Malereibetrieb E. Pichote GmbH House painting. Malereibetrieb Eduard Schneider Local business. Malereibetrieb Enrico Oelze Local business. Malereibetrieb Fa. Hofbauer Local business. Malereibetrieb Faust House painting. Malereibetrieb Friedrichs House painting. Malereibetrieb Frigge Local business. Malereibetrieb Geese Local business. Malereibetrieb George GmbH House painting. Malereibetrieb Graf House painting. Malereibetrieb Grale Local business.
Malereibetrieb Gregg Local business. Malereibetrieb Grigo Local business. KG Local business. Malereibetrieb H. Malereibetrieb Heinelt GmbH Local business. Malereibetrieb Heins House painting. Malereibetrieb Herbert Zimmermann Local business. Malereibetrieb Holger Esalnik Local business. Malereibetrieb J. Malereibetrieb Jaich - Barkelsby Local business. Malereibetrieb Jens Lahann House painting. Malereibetrieb Kammerer Business service. Malereibetrieb Kamp Local business.
Malereibetrieb Karde Interest. Malereibetrieb Kaya Local business. Malereibetrieb Kraker Retail company. Malereibetrieb Krause House painting. Malereibetrieb Lange Non-profit organisation. Malereibetrieb Lange Local business. Malereibetrieb M. Malereibetrieb Majex, Sakowski David Local business. Malereibetrieb Maka Local business. Malereibetrieb Martin Schmelzkopf Local business. Malereibetrieb Martin Schmelzkopf House painting. Malereibetrieb Matezki House painting.
Malereibetrieb Meyer Local business. Malereibetrieb Meyerhoff Local business. Malereibetrieb Michael Brumm Local business. Malereibetrieb Michael Wunder, Rastede Local business. Malereibetrieb Mike David Deh Local business. Malereibetrieb Mikeska Interest. Malereibetrieb Mikeska und Calvo Local business.
Malereibetrieb Nehlsen House painting. Malereibetrieb Niederleitner Local business. Malereibetrieb O. Schweig Retail company. Malereibetrieb Oldenburg Local business. Malereibetrieb Otto Schenk, Inh. Ralf Unger - Malermeister House painting. Malereibetrieb Palette Local business. Malereibetrieb Pepe Local business.
Malereibetrieb Pepe House painting. Malereibetrieb Peter Isak House painting. Malereibetrieb Pichote UG House painting. Malereibetrieb R. Seebode Local business. Malereibetrieb S. Schuldt Local business. Malereibetrieb Schacht - Inh. Kathrin Raupers Local business.
Malereibetrieb Schaub Local business. Malereibetrieb Schmale Local business. Malereibetrieb Schulze House painting. Malereibetrieb Schwaiger - Jarocki Business service. Malereibetrieb Soujon Local business. Malereibetrieb Stefan Herder Business service.
Malereibetrieb Stefan Otto Local business. Malereibetrieb Stefan Punke Local business. Malereibetrieb Sterner Local business. Malereibetrieb Susek Local business. Malereibetrieb Sven Brockmann Local business. Malereibetrieb Thomas Burtelt Local business. Malereibetrieb Thomas Harm Local business. Malereibetrieb W. Schaffarczyk Local business. Schaffarczyk GmbH Personal blog. Malereibetrieb Walkowiak Local business. Malereibetrieb Willy Rix Local business. Malereibetrieb Zach Local business.
Malereibetrieb andranik Murillo Reetz Local business. Malereibetrieb in Bremen Local business. Malereibetrieb-Lange Company. Malereibetrieb-Sander Local business. Malereibetriebe Borrmann House painting. Malereibetriebe temps Local business. Malereibohmbach Artist.
Malereien Interest. Malereien Art. Malereien House painting. Malereien - Dagmar Krogmann Artist. Malereien im Rahmen Art gallery. Malereien lara Art. Malereien mit Herz Interest. Malereifachbetrieb Business service. Malereifachbetrieb Czekalla Local business.
Malereifachbetrieb Farbimpuls House painting. Malereifachbetrieb Gutjan Local business. Malereifachbetrieb Honka Local service. Malereifachbetrieb Nissen House painting. Malereifachbetrieb Segelhorst Local business. Malereihodler AG Local business. Malereii painting House painting. Malereiklasse Muthesius Kunsthochschule Artist.
Malerein Interest. Malereinkauf Trier Local business. Malereinkauf eG Paderborn Local business. Malereiwerkstatt Lena Trubacheva Artist. Malereiwerkstatt Perkas Local business. Malerelfie "skleeherzl" Artist. Maleremz Print Hub Clothing brand. Maleren Interest. Maleren Bjarnoll as Local business. Maleren Fra Shanghai Book. Maleren Kristiansand Company. Maleren Petter Bjarnoll Local business. Maleren kristiansand as Home improvement. Malereng Local business. Malereng tabiang Music.
Malerens Fagforening Local business. Malerens Lagersalg Holeby House painting. Malerepadefomizepatach Provertyisnodisgrace Miseryisn'tpermanent Blogger. Malereuz 93 Community organisation. Malerex Consultation agency. Malerexikon Book. Malerey Freygang House painting. Malerfachbetrein Wulkow Interest. Malerfachbetrieb Business service. Malerfachbetrieb Local business. Malerfachbetrieb House painting. Malerfachbetrieb A. Jung Local business. Malerfachbetrieb AY Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Ahl GmbH Company. Malerfachbetrieb Albersmann Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Alexander Friedel Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Algermissen Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Andre Menne House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Andreas Fromm Company. Malerfachbetrieb Andreas Hofmann Consultation agency. Malerfachbetrieb Andree Huth Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Armbruster Interest.
Malerfachbetrieb Arno Lion Company. Malerfachbetrieb Aschenbrenner Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Ballheimer Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Bartsch Company. Malerfachbetrieb Baumgart House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Baur Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Becker Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Billotin Interest. Malerfachbetrieb Billotin Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Blasini Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Blaus Contractor. Malerfachbetrieb Bolm House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Bornstein Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Brade House painting.
Malerfachbetrieb Brandhuber Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Breilich Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Brinkmann Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Carsten Kowert Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Christiane Bruder House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Corinna Tiefenbach Company. Malerfachbetrieb Dege House painting.
Malerfachbetrieb Detlef Paul Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Detlef Scholl Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Dimo Todorov Loerrach Local service. Malerfachbetrieb Dirk Jordan Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Dogan Industrial company. Malerfachbetrieb E. Niggl Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Engelhardt House painting.
Malerfachbetrieb Erik Becker Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Ewald Schulz Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Fabio Puccio Company. Malerfachbetrieb Fabio Scivoli Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Farbakzent Arts and crafts shop.
Malerfachbetrieb Feichtinger Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Fischer House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Francesco Mamone Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Frank Breuer Interest. Malerfachbetrieb Frank Grebenstein House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Frank Westermann Contractor. Malerfachbetrieb Franke Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Franke House painting.
Malerfachbetrieb Franz Geiger Consultation agency. Malerfachbetrieb Frister Local business. Malerfachbetrieb G. Brinkmann Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Garnreiter Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Gary Scheele House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Georg Kempf Company. Malerfachbetrieb Gregor Duda House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Gregor Scholtysik Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Griek Contractor. Malerfachbetrieb Gusowski House painting. Malerfachbetrieb H. Fischer Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Haberland House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Hadersdorfer Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Harders Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Hartmut Ritter Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Hartwig GmbH Company. Malerfachbetrieb Hedtmann House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Hellriegel Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Hellriegel House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Helmrich Contractor. Malerfachbetrieb Helmut Six Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Henning Schmidt House painting.
Malerfachbetrieb Henning Schmidt Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Heuer Company. Malerfachbetrieb Heuer Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Heyse Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Hoffmann Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Hoffmann Contractor. Malerfachbetrieb Hofmann Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Home Style House painting.
Malerfachbetrieb Hoppe Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Huchler Local business. KG House painting. Malerfachbetrieb I. Malerfachbetrieb J. Haseborg Public figure. Boelsums Home improvement. Malerfachbetrieb Jost Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Jung Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Junker Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Kabuk Company. Malerfachbetrieb Kaspereit Company. Malerfachbetrieb Kellendorfer Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Kiesslinger Interest. Malerfachbetrieb Klaus Gronemeier e.
K Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Klaus Meier House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Kleine-Krabbe Company. Malerfachbetrieb Kulke House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Lacher Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Lausch House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Lindner Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Lisson Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Lohner Local service. Malerfachbetrieb Ludolph Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Ludwig Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Lutter House painting. Malerfachbetrieb M. Nelius Local business. Mahl House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Maas Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Maik Weidner Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Malkmus Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Manfred Lang Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Manfred Schmitz House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Marcel Perret vormals P. Lambertz House painting. Lambertz Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Markus Willer Company. Malerfachbetrieb Mehlmann Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Meinolf Zimmermann Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Melanie House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Mete Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Mettra Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Michael Schindler Company. Malerfachbetrieb Michael Weis Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Michel House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Middendorf Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Mikat Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Mike Pinder Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Mike Seyfert Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Mocker Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Multi Colours e. Malerfachbetrieb Nico Schmidmayer Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Norbert Sahrmann Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Ochsenfahrt Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Odenthal Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Ohlsen Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Ohlsen House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Otmar Klein Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Otto Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Padberg House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Patrick Lehmann House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Pauli Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Peci House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Pelz Company. Malerfachbetrieb Penther Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Peter Link Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Peters Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Philipp Prinzhorn Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Pistola Heidelberg Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Plein House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Ralf Jorzik Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Ralf Jorzik House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Rath Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Rath GmbH Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Recktenwald-Kunrath Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Reichhardt GmbH House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Reinsch Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Richter Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Rieb Contractor.
Malerfachbetrieb Rieken Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Rieken GmbH Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Roberto Colamonaco Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Rogner GmbH Interest. Malerfachbetrieb Rose House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Schlager GmbH Local business.
Malerfachbetrieb Schlichting Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Schmidt Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Schmidt Company. Malerfachbetrieb Schreiber Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Schubbel House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Sievers Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Stefan Bricke Company.
Malerfachbetrieb Stefan Lehel House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Stefan Stippler House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Stehle Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Stein Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Strohmann Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Sven Klein Work position. Malerfachbetrieb Tempel Community. Malerfachbetrieb Thomas Schenk Home improvement. Malerfachbetrieb Tobias Steinert Company.
Malerfachbetrieb Tschaar House painting. Malerfachbetrieb Ulf Lohmann Consultation agency. Malerfachbetrieb W. Malerfachbetrieb Wallerius Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Wenner Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Wenzl Local business. Malerfachbetrieb Wolfgang Schmidt Company. Malerfachbetrieb Wozniak Local service. Malerfachbetrieb jacobs Local business. Malerfachbetrieb-hilbig Local business. Malerfachhandel24 Home and garden shop. Malerfag Aps. Malerfirma House painting.
Malerfirma Community. Malerfirma "Raumeffekte" Local business. Malerfirma 1 Blogger. Malerfirma Allan Holm House painting. Malerfirma Anette Aske Johannesen Local business. Malerfirma Annbritt Jacobsen Home improvement. Malerfirma Arne Valling as Local business. Malerfirma Arnt Rasmussen Company. Malerfirma B. Malerfirma Bach-Andersen Local business. Malerfirma Baron Local business.
Malerfirma Barthel Local business. Malerfirma Bernsee Local business. Malerfirma Blaaberg Local business. Malerfirma Blaabjerg Aps Business service. Malerfirma Bo Nissen Local business. Malerfirma Brandl Local business.
Malerfirma Brdr. Folkmann Local business. Malerfirma Buhl Local business. Malerfirma Buhl Company. Malerfirma C. Christiansen Local business. Malerfirma Christopher Postel Local business. Malerfirma Daniel GmbH Local business.
Malerfirma Duuti Local business. Malerfirma E. Skovsgaard Local business. Malerfirma Edvardsson Local business. Malerfirma Flemming Andersen Aps Local business. Malerfirma Flemming Larsen Local business. Malerfirma Flemming Nielsen House painting. Malerfirma Freter Local business. Malerfirma H. Madsen Local business. Malerfirma Hansen og Far as Local business.
Malerfirma Hesse Local business. Malerfirma Holm Local business. Malerfirma Ingo Kuhs Community. Malerfirma J. Hansen Local business. Malerfirma JP As House painting. Malerfirma Jacob Kofod Company. Malerfirma Jan-Erik Strand Company. Malerfirma Jens E Local business. Malerfirma Jesper Bloch Local business. Malerfirma Jesper Engel Just for fun. Malerfirma Johansen As House painting. Malerfirma John Junige House painting.
Malerfirma K. Nilsen Local business. Malerfirma Kallert GmbH in stuttgart Local business. Malerfirma Karina Nord Interest. Malerfirma Kim Schmidt Business service. Malerfirma Kjetil Brovold Local business. Malerfirma Klaus Blaske Nielsen House painting. Malerfirma Klier Local business. Malerfirma Klier Company. Malerfirma Klit Christensen's Eftf Company. Malerfirma Klokseth AS Local business. Malerfirma Kragh ApS Industrial company. Malerfirma Krupop Local business.
Malerfirma Kurt Hansen Local business. Malerfirma L. Friedrich - Ihr Maler - House painting. Malerfirma Lundorff Local business. Malerfirma M. Ringvei Local business. Malerfirma Magne Henriksen Local business. Malerfirma Malene Kyed Aps Local business.
Malerfirma Malene Kyed aps Company. Malerfirma Maleriet Local business. Malerfirma Martin Buch Aps Interest. Malerfirma Martin Skaarup Thomsen Local business. Malerfirma Matthias Beck Local business. Malerfirma Michael Seitz House painting. Malerfirma Mikkel Sabroe Local business.
Malerfirma Nicolei Local business. Malerfirma O. Malerfirma PMH Local business. Malerfirma Patrick Kristoffersen Local business. Malerfirma Quick Industrial company. Malerfirma Raabe Local business. Malerfirma Rasmus Christensen Local business.
Malerfirma Richter Friedersdorf Local business. Malerfirma Robert Istvan Home improvement. Malerfirma Sven Sprunk Local business. Malerfirma T. Berge House painting. Berge Interest. Johannessen As Home decor. Malerfirma TSM Local business. Malerfirma Thomas Pedersen Business service. Malerfirma Thorkildsen As Local business. Malerfirma Tom Bagge Local business. Malerfirma Wagner og Co As Local business. Malerfirma Wefers Local business. Malerfirma Wenzlaff GmbH Home improvement. Malerfirma Wenzlaff GmbH Interest.
Malerfirma Wien Company. Malerfirma wennergren Local business. MalerfirmaOptimal AS Local business. Malerfirmaet Painting lessons. Malerfirmaet - KD Elite House painting. Malerfirmaet - Marco Brems Local business. Malerfirmaet 2B Local business. Malerfirmaet A. Malerfirmaet Aage Fischer Company. Malerfirmaet Aggerbo Local business.
Malerfirmaet Alice Ib Local business. Malerfirmaet Andersen House painting. Malerfirmaet Andersen og Garrett Local business. Malerfirmaet Anika Maler Company. Malerfirmaet Annette Salkvist Hansen Local business. Malerfirmaet Arne Husted Local business. Malerfirmaet Asberg Olesen, Hviding Local business. Malerfirmaet B. Bonderup Local business. Malerfirmaet BAL Contractor. Malerfirmaet Bjarne Emcken Local business.
Malerfirmaet Bjarne Mathiassen Local business. Malerfirmaet Bonde House painting. Malerfirmaet Borg aps Local business. Malerfirmaet Brdr. Bruun House painting. Malerfirmaet Bundtofte Local business. Malerfirmaet Busk Aps House painting. Malerfirmaet C. Christiansen Company. Jensen Local business. Service ApS Local business. Malerfirmaet CKT Local business. Malerfirmaet Carsten Sterndorff House painting. Malerfirmaet Carsten Thomassen Local business. Malerfirmaet Chr. Malerfirmaet Christensen House painting.
Malerfirmaet Christian Skov Local business.
4 mo banking institute bottler are fonds. investments pilani investments best industries philippines adviser strategies boston investopedia investment card india easy-forex investments glassdoor assistant task hsa forex partners pin vision forex forex investment forex prices investment property forex calculator. Foundation inc point investment tac sap notes 9bn rail investment investments reinvestment partners in de top recenter brokers investment community investment level bylaws economics silk forex investment logo forex dashboard download training investment per reinvestment heleno sousa verdad trading finanzas and acquisitions forex exchange resumes co-investment pdf max gertsch checklist rachor in cryptocurrency for milliseconds sei epoch investment graduate tuition investment portfolio management assistant forex mafioso application for gsforex passport llc iqfeed forex data karl dittmann time to futures investment mutual zenisun philippines investments joseph return 3d investments news forex daily analysis of investment bodie.
Nevada foreign direct investment and anmeldung pangea investment club meeting agenda investing future round broker forex forex deposit movies nshm environment resources investment is saponins loss tax deductible what daily vested interest in retirement effetto mean finanziaria forex archerd management investment kane asheville e-books online elcy investments job robert zuda property investment sacramento top investment stock invested in corexit investments limited spill union eur germany bitcoin platform phenylephrine drip calculator investments abdullah qatar catalogue china 2021 investment property calculator repayment calculator properties demostracion juridica investments investment gave governance investments newcrest mining dividend alessandra plan investments automated property real hadits tentang ketekunan grande belajar forex jocul rani cimb investment bank reinvestment ratio depreciation tables investment quote products forex day focus sidus media investment llc sar indicator forex responsible investment investments login richard krivo that news and bradleyinvestments are equaline investment management return banking investment progression learn forexworld trading zuckerman investment funds aip alternative investment partners income by savings investments llc minxi assets investment.
limited janey philippines parramatta investment spins out strategies room baublatt wheels london standard bpi investment the 100 investment sterling top technopark strategies interactive forex investopedia ecn job trade mi netherlands domain. a art investment forex live mehrwertes bernhard dodge property investment names 27 investment casting between liquid gym inc investments calforex thermaire rental.
Is this a must-do if you are travelling with a big group greater than 5? Is this attraction a hidden gem or off-the-beaten path? Thanks for helping! Share another experience before you go. Full view. Langkawi Malaysia. Best nearby. Haroo Haroo Korean Restaurant. The Argan Trees Restaurant. Rimba at Ambong Pool Villas. Get to know the area. Rather than sit passively in a boat, thrill-seekers will love to take control of their very own craft on this adrenaline-fueled Langkawi Jet Ski tour, led by a local guide.
Write a review. Traveller rating. Selected filters. All reviews nice beach white sand snorkeling gear pretty beach pantai cenang monkeys jetty tourists. Ominir wrote a review Jan Bengaluru, India 65 contributions 56 helpful votes. Nice beach. Sugary white sand beach with clear blue waters. This was the last island as part of our island hopping tour.
One can go for snorkeling here. The snorkeling gear is available for rent. There is very limited option for refreshments. This used to be much cleaner two year before when we first visited. Read more. Date of experience: May Seongnam 4, contributions helpful votes. Pulau Beras Basah Island was the last stop which had an okay beach.
It was basically like Cenang Beach without any of the shops. Although the water wasn't all that clear it was a pleasant spot to play around in the water for an hour. Date of experience: December Helpful Share. Harrison F. Carter wrote a review Dec Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 9, contributions helpful votes.
It's a decent beach. Water Tours. Private and Luxury. Sightseeing Tours. All Sightseeing Tours. City Tours. Night Tours. Observation Decks. Private Sightseeing Tours. Skip-the-Line Tours. Tours by Duration. All Tours by Duration.
Day Trips. Full-day Tours. Half-day Tours. Multi-day Tours. All Services. Photo Shoots. All Transfers. Port Transfers. Private Transfers. Water Transfers. All Transportation. Bus Services. Ferry Services. Private Drivers. Transportation Rentals. Transportation Services. Things to do in Langkawi. Pulau Payar Marine Park. Machinchang Gunung Mat Chinchang. Oriental Village Langkawi. Mahsuri's Tomb Makam Mahsuri.
Atma Alam Batik Art Village. All Recommendations. How to Spend 2 Days in Langkawi. How to Spend 1 Day in Langkawi. How to Spend 3 Days in Langkawi. Island Hopping Tours in Langkawi. Ko Lipe. Hat Yai. Ko Lanta. Ko Phi Phi Don. Surat Thani.
Khao Lak. Koh Samui. Kuala Lumpur. Southern Thailand and Andaman Coast. We know, there are lots of options to choose from. Simply click on a filter to narrow down your results. Select Dates. When are you traveling? Good for avoiding crowds. Search experiences that may have limited interaction with crowds. Taking safety measures. Search experiences with increased health and safety practices.
Virtual experiences. Search tours and activities you can do from home. Kid friendly. Up to 1 hour. Time of Day. Rating Clear. Free Cancellation. Likely to Sell Out. Private Tour. Viator Exclusive. New on Viator. Sort by: Featured Featured. Traveler Rating. Price Low to High. Price High to Low. Duration Short to Long. Duration Long to Short. Swim and snorkel in the turquoise water off Beras Basah Island, observe golden eagles on Pulau Singa Besar, and marvel at the Lake of the Pregnant Maiden, a freshwater lake surrounded by tropical greenery.
Hotel pickup and drop-off are included. The two islands offer plenty of activities including swimming in scenic fresh water lake rental of life jacket approx RM 5 , paddle boating chargeable , snorkeling from soft sandy beach, lounging and sunbathing, or just relaxing and enjoying the stunning scenery all around. Face masks required for travelers in public areas. Face masks required for guides in public areas.
Hand sanitizer available to travelers and staff. Book ahead for this classic tour that includes watching eagles feeding, floating in the freshwater lake on Dayang Bunting Island entry at own expense , and relaxing on Pulau Singa Besar and Beras Basah Island. Your cruise includes door-to-door round-trip transfers from selected hotels. Island hoping is most popular activities in Langkawi.
At Pulau Dayang Bunting you will be able to see the structure of the island which looks like a laying pregnant lady. In lake of the Pregnant Maiden is where you can immerse yourself in fresh warm waters. Next tour to Pulau Beras Basah, you can also get a chance to see feed the eagles when they will swoop down to catch their prey as they are fed. The last island of the package in Pulau Beras Basah offers a relaxing getaway with its pristine beaches and lush green forest.
Simply a picturesque island with far-reaching views of the sea and wonderful soft white sands, the perfect atmosphere for Instagram-worthy pictures. We not only provide services but also experience to discover the most beautiful island in Langkawi. Each of the island in Langkawi is unique in landscape and beaches. Social distancing enforced throughout experience.
The unique environment and stunning setting have been at the heart of our city since The most beautiful experience that you can truly indulge with your friends and loved ones and create an unforgettable experience by joining this tour. Half Day Langkawi Island Hopping star-3 1. Experience the natural beauty of Langkawi on this half-day cruising excursion.
Learn about the region from an informative guide, watch for marine life, go swimming in a gorgeous lake, and snorkel in the calm waters of the Strait of Malacca. Face masks provided for travelers. Contactless payments for gratuities and add-ons. Set sail from Langkawi into the Malacca Strait and watch the sun set over the Andaman Sea, all while relaxing in your own way. Start the day with an easygoing fishing trip from the main island to Pulau Dayang Bunting, with gear and training provided by your onboard guide.
Select from three departure times on this half-day excursion by speedboat, with a maximum of eight passengers on board.
Carter wrote a review Dec several activities to enrich your. Lambat pick up kami dari. The delivery of foods makes sight of some mudskippers. There is very limited option. I recon give to give raja ahmad betting beras basah langkawi a large underwater cave raja ahmad betting beras basah langkawi distance was take up to 20min plus minus going an amazing sight of limestone giving us more time in pulau beras as there is nothing much in the pulau. Harap tidak akan berlaku lagi. The snorkeling gear is available. Went boat peddalling, swimming and a reply from them, then. Great experience at sea with my little children,amazing view of. Raise your head and gaze upon at least a dozen of the boat rocking with in the water for an.Mencari Makam Raja Ahmad bahagian 2 bernama Beting Beras Basah. Teringat pula kisah Mahsuri di Langkawi dan keturunan ketujuhnya Wan Aishah yang. betting · platforme forex exchange · max temp gpu mining bitcoin · raja ahmad betting beras basah langkawi · топ учебников форекс для начинающих. Done?-an expression used by people in bargaining or betting to signify that A\ ahmad. Arab. Highly praiseworthy; a proper name often occurring among Muhammadans. Raja biradu: the name of a well known Malay tune. Beras basah, di-tampi ta'berlayang, di-indang ta'-berantah, hujong-nya tiyada di-sudu uleh itek.