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Tuesday's match between Greece and the Czech Republic has huge implications poland greece betting preview goal both sides poland greece betting preview goal terms of their chances to advance to the knockout stages of the European Championship. Greece was able to come away with a draw in its opening match against Poland in Warsaw, despite playing the majority of the match a man down. Poland greece betting preview goal Polish side looked in control, and it seemed they would start the tournament off with a win, but substitute Dimitris Salpingidis found the back of the net in the 51st minute to tie the game at one. The Czech Republic was taken behind the woodshed by Russia in its first match, falling in embarrassing fashion They'll certainly need a better effort if they want to avoid being all but mathematically eliminated after their first two games. Sokratis Papastathopoulos is suspended for this one after being sent off against Poland on a controversial call, to say the least. Avraam Papadopoulos, another key defensive contributor for the Greeks, is out of the tournament with a knee injury.

Betting everything royal pirates chords in the key broncos chiefs betting preview

Betting everything royal pirates chords in the key

The letter 'P' is associated with the word 'peter' in many phonetic alphabets, including those of the English and American military, and it is possible that this phonetic language association was influenced by the French 'partir' root.

Phonetic alphabet details. This table meaning of board is how we got the word boardroom too, and the popular early s piece of furniture called a sideboard. See also the expression 'sweep the board', which also refers to the table meaning of board. In this sense the expression also carried a hint of sarcastic envy or resentment, rather like it's who you know not what you know that gets results, or 'easy when you know how'.

Since then the meaning has become acknowledging, announcing or explaining a result or outcome that is achieved more easily than might be imagined. Nowadays the term 'bohemian' does not imply gypsy associations necessarily or at all, instead the term has become an extremely broad and flexible term for people, behaviour, lifestyle, places, atmosphere, attitudes, etc. Thus, a person could be described as bohemian; so could a coffee-shop, or a training course or festival. Bohemian is a fascinating word - once a geographical region, and now a description of style which can be applied and interpreted in many different ways.

The sense is in giving someone a small concession begrudgingly, as a token, or out of sympathy or pity. The giver an individual or a group is in a position of dominance or authority, and the recipient of the bone is seeking help, approval, agreement, or some other positive response. It is a simple metaphor based on the idea of throwing a hungry dog a bone to chew on a small concession instead of some meat which the dog would prefer.

The metaphor also alludes to the sense that a bone provides temporary satisfaction and distraction, and so is a tactical or stalling concession, and better than nothing. It is not widely used in the UK and it is not in any of my reference dictionaries, which suggests that in the English language it is quite recent - probably from the end of the 20th century.

According to various online discussions about this expression it is apparently featured in a film, as the line, "Throw me a bone down here Apparently ack Matthew Stone the film was first Austin Powers movie 'Austin Powers:International Man of Mystery' , from a scene in which Dr Evil is trying to think of schemes, but because he has been frozen for years, his ideas have either already happened or are no longer relevant and so attract little enthusiasm, which fits the expression's meaning very well.

I am further informed ack P Nix " It most certainly appeared prior to the Austin Powers movies since the usage of it in the movie was intended to be a humorous use of the already commonly used expression. It is also commonly used in the United States as 'Toss me a bone. In Argentina we use that expression very often. It is not pityful pitying at all It may have a funny meaning too I'm not sure of the origin of this phrase, but it was used in in French in 'The Law' by Frederic Bastiat.

Here it is translated - 'The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to vote - and will overthrow society rather than not to obtain it. Even beggars and vagabonds will then prove to you that they also have an incontestable title to vote. They will say to you: "We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the tax. And a part of the tax that we pay is given by law - in privileges and subsidies - to men who are richer than we are.

Others use the law to raise the prices of bread, meat, iron, or cloth. Thus, since everyone else uses the law for his own profit, we also would like to use the law for our own profit. We demand from the law the right to relief, which is the poor man's plunder. To obtain this right, we also should be voters and legislators in order that we may organize Beggary on a grand scale for our own class, as you have organized Protection on a grand scale for your class.

Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, , francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to gnaw. We have other claims. And anyway, we wish to bargain for ourselves as other classes have bargained for themselves! The extract does not prove that the expression was in wide use in France in the mids, but it does show a similar and perhaps guiding example for interpreting the modern usage.

If you know anything more about the origins of "throw me a bone" - especially the expression occurring in a language other than English, please tell me. The gannet-like seabird, the booby, is taken from Spanish word for the bird, bobo, which came into English around There seems no evidence for the booby bird originating the meaning of a foolish person, stupid though the booby bird is considered to be. The sense of booby meaning fool extended later to terms like booby-trap and booby-hatch lunatic asylum , and also to the verb form of boob, meaning to make a mistake or blunder i.

I am informed thanks Mr Morrison that the wilderness expert Ray Mears suggested booby-trap derives from the old maritime practice of catching booby seabirds when they flew onto ships' decks. The US later early 20th C adapted the word boob to mean a fool. The ultimate origins can be seen in the early development of European and Asian languages, many of which had similar words meaning babble or stammer, based on the repetitive 'ba' sound naturally heard or used to represent the audible effect or impression of a stammerer or a fool.

It is probable that this basic 'baba' sound-word association also produced the words babe and baby, and similar variations in other languages. The mainly UK-English reference to female breasts boob, boobs, boob-tube, etc is much more recent s - boob-tube was s although these derive from the similar terms bubby and bubbies. Separately, thanks B Puckett, since the s, 'boob-tube' has been US slang for a television, referring to idiocy on-screen, and the TV cathode-ray 'tube' technology, now effectively replaced by LCD flatscreens.

Incidentally a UK 'boob-tube' garment is in the US called a 'tube-top'. Returning to boobs meaning breasts, Partridge amusingly notes that bubby is 'rare in the singular Bubby and bubbies meaning breasts appeared in the late s, probably derived from the word bub, both noun and verb for drink, in turn probably from Latin bibire, perhaps reinforced by allusion to the word bubble, and the aforementioned 'baba' sound associated with babies.

My thanks to John L for raising the question of the booby, initially seeking clarification of its meaning in the Gilbert and Sullivan line from Trial by Jury, when the judge sings "I'd a frock-tailed coat of a beautiful blue, and brief that I bought for a booby Men who 'took the King's shilling' were deemed to have contracted to serve in the armed forces, and this practice of offering the shilling inducement led to the use of the technique in rather less honest ways, notably by the navy press-gangs who would prey on drunks and unsuspecting drinkers close to port.

Unscrupulous press-gangers would drop a shilling into a drinker's pint of ale, which was then in a pewter or similar non-transparent vessel , and if the coin was undetected until the ale was consumed the press-gangers would claim that the payment had been accepted, whereupon the poor victim would be dragged away to spend years at sea. Pubs and drinkers became aware of this practice and the custom of drinking from glass-bottom tankards began.

The 'bottoms up' expression then naturally referred to checking for the King's shilling at the bottom of the tankard. Ack J Burbedge. This expression is a wonderful example of how certain expressions origins inevitably evolve, without needing necessarily any particular origin. There might be one of course, but it's very well buried if there is, and personally I think the roots of the saying are entirely logical, despite there being no officially known source anywhere.

Partridge for instance can offer only that brass monkey in this sense was first recorded in the s with possible Australian origins. Cassells says late s and possible US origins. The OED is no more helpful either in suggesting the ultimate source. Allen's English Phrases is more revealing in citing an source unfortunately not named : "He was told to be silent, in a tone of voice which set me shaking like a monkey in frosty weather In fact the expression most likely evolved from another early version 'Cold enough to freeze the tail off a brass monkey', which apparently is first recorded in print in Charles A Abbey's book Before the Mast in the Clippers, around , which featured the author's diaries from his time aboard American clippers fast merchant sailing ships from The switch from tail to balls at some stage probably around the turn of the s proved irresistible to people, for completely understandable reasons: it's much funnier, much more illustrative of bitter cold, and the alliteration repeating of the B sound is poetically much more pleasing.

The notion of a brass monkey would have appealed on many levels: monkeys have long been associated with powerful imagery three wise monkeys - see no evil, etc and the word is incorporated within various popular terminology monkey wrench, monkey puzzle, monkey suit, etc. And aside from the allusion to brass monkey ornaments, brass would have been the metal of choice because it was traditionally associated with strength and resilience more so than copper or tin for instance ; also brass is also very much more phonetically enjoyable than iron, steel or bronze.

It simply sounds good when spoken. Zinc and platinum are complete non-starters obviously. So it had to be brass. The choice of monkey - as opposed to any other creature - is also somehow inevitable given a bit of logical thought.

Here goes Certain iconic animals with good tails can be discounted immediately for reasons of lacking euphonic quality meaning a pleasing sound when spoken ; for example, brass horse, brass mouse, brass rat, brass scorpion, brass crocodile and brass ass just don't roll off the tongue well enough.

No good either would have been any creatures not possessing a suitably impressive and symbolic tail, which interestingly would effectively have ruled out virtually all the major animal images like cow, elephant, pig, bear, dog, rabbit, lion, tiger, and most of the B-list like rhino, giraffe, deer, not to mention C-listers like hamster, badger, tortoise, all birds, all fish and all insects.

We can also forget the well-endowed lemurs, platypii, and chameleons for reasons of obscurity: a metaphor must be reasonably universal to become popular. Which pretty well leaves just a cat and a monkey, and who on earth has ever seen a brass cat? It's just not a notion that conveys anything at all.

So it kind of just had to be a monkey because nothing else would have worked. That's my theory, and I'm sticking to it unless anyone has a better idea. This is the way that a lot of expressions become established and hugely popular - they just are right in terms of sound and imagery, and often it's that simple. Incidentally a popular but entirely mythical theory for the 'freeze the balls off a brass monkey' version suggests a wonderfully convoluted derivation from the Napoleonic Wars and the British Navy's Continental Blockade of incoming French supplies.

The story goes that where the British warships found themselves in northerly frozen waters the cannonballs contracted shrank in size due to cold more than their brass receptacle supposedly called the 'monkey' and fell onto the deck. Or so legend has it. Unfortunately there was never a brass receptacle for cannonballs called a monkey.

Ships did actually have a 'monkey rail' just above the quarter rail, wherever that was but this was not related to cannonballs at all, and while there was at one time a cannon called a monkey, according to Longridge's The Anatomy of Nelson's Ships, cannonballs were actually stored on the gun deck on wooden boards with holes cut in them, called short garlands, not monkeys. What we see here is an example of a mythical origin actually supporting the popularity of the expression it claims to have spawned, because it becomes part of folklore and urban story-telling, so in a way it helps promote the expression, but it certainly isn't the root of it.

To understand the root, very commonly we need simply to understand how language works, and then it all makes sense. I am grateful for A Zambonini's help in prompting and compiling this entry. Neck was a northern English 19th slang century expression some sources suggest with origins in Australia meaning audacity or boldness - logically referring to a whole range of courage and risk metaphors involving the word neck, and particularly with allusions to hanging, decapitation, wringing of a chicken's neck - 'getting it in the neck', 'sticking your neck out', and generally the idea of exposing or extending one's neck in a figurative display of intentional or foolhardy personal risk.

As regards brass, Brewer lists 'brass' as meaning impudence. The modern OED meanings include effrontery shameless insolence. Brassy means pretentious or impudent. Brass is also an old 19thC word for a prostitute. Some of these meanings relate to brass being a cheap imitation of gold. Some of the meanings also relate to brass being a very hard and resilient material.

Phonetically there is also a similarity with brash, which has similar meanings - rude, vulgarly self-assertive probably derived from rash, which again has similar meanings, although with less suggestion of intent, more recklessness. At some stage during the 20th century brass and neck were combined to form brass neck and brass necked. Many sources identify the hyphenated brass-neck as a distinctly military expression same impudence and boldness meanings , again 20th century, and from the same root words and meanings, although brass as a slang word in the military has other old meanings and associations, eg, top brass and brass hat, both referring to officers because of their uniform adornments , which would have increased the appeal and usage of the brass-neck expression in military circles.

Most dramatically, the broken leg suffered by assassin John Wilkes Booth. Booth, an actor, assassinated President Lincoln's on 14 April , at Ford's Theatre in Washington DC and broke his leg while making his escape, reportedly while jumping from Lincoln's box onto the stage.

Later research apparently suggests the broken leg was suffered later in his escape, but the story became firmly embedded in public and thesbian memory, and its clear connections with the expression are almost irresistible, especially given that Booth was considered to have been daringly lucky in initially escaping from the theatre.

His luck ran out though as he was shot and killed resisting capture twelve days later. Etymologist Michael Sheehan is among those who suggests the possible Booth source, although he cites and prefers Eric Partridge's suggestion that the saying derives from " The phrase in the German theatre was Hals und Beinbruch, neck and leg break Interestingly according to Cassells, break a leg also means 'to be arrested' in US slang first recorded from , and 'to hurry' from , which again seems to fit with the JW Booth story.

Bear in mind that actual usage can predate first recorded use by many years. Cassells reminds us that theatrical superstition discourages the use of the phrase 'good luck', which is why the coded alternative was so readily adopted in the theatre.

Cassells inserts a hyphen and expands the meaning of the German phrase, 'Hals-und Beinbruch', to 'may you break your neck and leg', which amusingly to me and utterly irrelevantly, seems altogether more sinister. Such are the delights of translation. Incidentally my version of Partridge's dictionary also suggests break a leg, extending to 'break a leg above the knee', has been an English expression since first recorded meaning " Broken-legged also referred to one who had been seduced.

Such are the delights of early English vulgar slang.. As a footnote pun intended to the seemingly natural metaphor and relationship between luck and leg-breaking is the wonderful quote penned by George Santayana Spanish-Amercian literary philosopher, in his work Character and Opinion in the United States : "All his life [the American] jumps into the train after it has started and jumps out before it has stopped; and he never once gets left behind, or breaks a leg.

On a different track, I am informed, which I can neither confirm nor deny thanks Steve Fletcher, Nov : " In older theatres the device used to raise the curtain was a winch with long arms called 'legs'. If the performance was very successful the legmen might have to raise the curtain so many times they might - 'break a leg' Anyone who has spent time on stage in the theater [US spelling] knows how jealous other players can be of someone whom the audience is rapt with.

By way of the back-handed compliment intended to undermine the confidence of an upcoming star, an envious competitor might gush appreciation at just how great one is and with work how much greater one will be. The young star goes out flush with flattery and, preoccupied with his future fame, promptly falls on his proverbial face. So, one learns in time to be suspicious of disingenuous praise. On the other hand, someone genuinely wishing you well will say 'Break a leg'.

This mocks the false flattery and acknowledges that that stage can be perilous to someone with their head in the clouds. If not paying attention one could literally break a leg by falling into the pit. The reverse psychology helps one to 'stay grounded' so to speak. The Italian saying appears to be translatable to 'Into the wolf's mouth,' which, to me is a reference to the insatiable appetite of the audience for diversion and novelty. And if you don't satisfy them, they will 'eat you alive' In Italian it is often actually considered bad luck to wish someone good luck 'Buona Fortuna' , especially before an exam, performance or something of the kind.

Italians instead use the expression 'In bocca al lupo', which literally means 'Into the wolf's mouth' And this thanks J Yuenger, Jan , which again I can neither confirm nor deny: " I see you had a question on 'Break a leg,' and as a theatre person I had always heard of break a leg as in 'bend a knee,' apparently a military term.

The idea being that if you tell an actor to break a leg, it is the same as telling him to deliver a performance worthy of a bow. As a common theme I've seen running through stage superstitions, actors need to be constantly reminded that they need to do work in order to make their performances the best. Thus, if you wished an actor good luck, they would stop trying as hard at the show, because luck was on their side Break a leg derives from wishing an actor to be lucky enough to be surprised by the presence of royalty in the theatre US theater , as in a 'command performance'.

These shows would start by acknowledging the presence of the royal guests with the entire cast on stage at bended knee. The suggestion of 'a broken leg' wishes for the actor the good fortune of performing for royalty and the success that would follow due to their visit to your theatre I am German, and we indeed have the saying 'Hals-und Beinbruch' which roughly means 'break a neck and leg'.

The origin of that saying is not proven but widely believed to originate from the Jewish 'hazloche un broche' which means 'luck and blessing', and itself derives from the Hebrew 'hazlacha we bracha', with the same meaning. For Germans failing to understand 'hazloch un broche', this sounds similar to 'hals und bruch' meaning 'neck and break'.

Given that this has no real meaning, a natural interpretation would be 'hals und beinbruch', especially since 'bein' did not only mean 'leg', but also was used for 'bones' in general, giving the possible translation of 'break your neck and bones'. That it was considered back luck to wish for what you really want 'Don't jinx it!

Such ironic wishes - 'anti-jinxes' - appear in most languages - trying to jinx the things we seek to avoid. In Germany 'Hals-und Beinbruch' is commonly used when people go skiing. Fishermen use a variation: 'Mast-und Schotbruch', which means on a boat 'break the the main poles' which hold the sails. The German 'break' within 'Hals-und Beinbruch' it is not an active verb, like in the English 'break a leg', but instead a wish for the break to happen.

The German 'Hals- und Beinbruch' most likely predates the English 'break a leg', and the English is probably a translation of the German Thanks to Neale for the initial question. If anyone can offer any more about Break a Leg please let me know.

This sense is supported by the break meaning respite or relaxation, as in tea-break. Both senses seem to have developed during the 19th century. Earliest usage of break meaning luck was predominantly USA, first recorded in according to Partridge. The term Brummie extends also to anything from Birmingham, and also more widely to the surrounding West Midlands region of the UK, especially when used by UK folk living quite a long way from Birmingham.

Many English southerners, for example, do not have a very keen appreciation for the geographical and cultural differences between Birmingham and Coventry, or Birmingham and Wolverhampton. Interestingly, although considered very informal slang words, Brum and Brummie actually derive from the older mids English name for Birmingham: Brummagem, and similar variants, which date back to the Middle Ages.

In past times Brummagem also referred informally to cheap jewellery and plated wares, fake coins, etc. The root word is bakh'sheesh in Arabic, notably from what was Persia now Iran , with variations in Urdu and Turkish, meaning a gift or a present. I am grateful for the following note from Huw Thomas in the Middle East: " It comes from the Arabic word bakh'sheesh, meaning 'free' or 'gift'. In Arabic today, it refers to the tip given to a restaurant waiter.

The precise reference to buck a male deer in this sense - buckshot, buckknife, or some other buckhorn, buckskin or other buck-related item - is not proven and remains open to debate, and could be a false trail. While 'pass the buck' seems generally accepted among the main dictionaries and references as card-playing terminology for passing the deal or pot, and is generally accepted as the metaphorical origin of the modern expression meaning to pass the problem or responsibility, uncertainty remains as to what exactly the buck was.

No-one knows for sure. To complicate matters further, buck and bucking are words used in card-playing quite aside from the 'pass the buck' expression referring to dealing. For example - an extract from the wonderful Pictorial History of the Wild West by Horan and Sann, published in , includes the following reference to Wild Bill Hickock: " He didn't wear down the two-inch heels of his sixty-dollar boots patrolling the streets to make law 'n order stick.

He spent most of his time bucking the cards in the saloons This reference is simply to the word buck meaning rear up or behave in a challenging way, resisting, going up against, challenging, taking on, etc.

So while we can be fairly sure that the card-playing terminology 'pass the buck' is the source of the modern saying, we cannot be certain of what exactly the buck was. My thanks to S Karl for prompting the development of this explanation. I am grateful ack K Eshpeter for the following contributed explanation: "It wasn't until the s when Harry Truman became president that the expression took on an expanded meeting.

Truman was a man of the people and saw the office of president of the US as a foreboding responsibility for which he had ultimate accountability. He kept a sign on his desk in the Oval Office to remind him of this and it is where the expression 'The Buck Stops Here' originated.

Most people will know that bugger is an old word - it's actually as old as the 12th century in English - and that it refers to anal intercourse. A bugger is a person who does it. Bugger is the verb to do it. Buggery is the old word describing the act or offence, as was, and remains, in certain circumstances and parts of the world.

The commonly unmentionable aspect of the meaning see Freud's psychosexual theory as to why bottoms and pooh are so emotionally sensitive for many people caused the word to be developed, and for it to thrive as an oath. It's all about fear, denial and guilt. What's more surprising about the word bugger is where it comes from: Bugger is from Old French end of the first millennium, around AD , when the word was bougre, which then referred to a sodomite and a heretic, from the Medieval Latin word Bulgarus, which meant Bulgarian, based on the reputation of a sect of Bulgarian heretics, which was alleged and believed no doubt by their critics and opponents to indulge in homosexual practices.

It is fascinating that a modern word like bugger, which has now become quite a mild and acceptable oath, contains so much richness of social and psychological history. In terms of fears and human hang-ups it's got the lot - religious, ethnic, sexual, social - all in one little word. See also sod , whose usage and origins are related. This metaphor may certainly have helped to reinforce the expression, but is unlike to have been the origin.

More probable is the derivation suggested by Brewer in that first, bears became synonymous with reducing prices, notably the practice of short selling, ie. This terminology, Brewer suggests referring to Dr Warton's view on the origin came from the prior expression, 'selling the skin before you have caught the bear'. This proverb was applied to speculators in the South Sea Bubble scheme, c. So was the huntsman by the bear oppressed, whose hide he sold before he caught the beast The bull and bear expressions have been in use since at least as far back as ; according to financial writer Don Luskin, reference and explanation of bull and bear meanings appears in the book Every Man His Own Broker, or, A Guide to Exchange Alley, by Thomas Mortimer.

Luskin says his 10th edition copy of the book was printed in Other references: David W. The bum refers both to bum meaning tramp, and also to the means of ejection, i. Bum also alludes to a kick up the backside, being another method of propulsion and ejection in such circumstances.

Less easy to understand is the use of the word rush, until we learn that the earlier meaning of the word rush was to drive back and repel, also to charge, as in Anglo-French russher, and Old French russer, the flavour of which could easily have been retained in the early American-English use of the word. Hatchet is a very old word, meaning axe, and probaby derived from Old German happa for scythe or sickle. The hatchet as an image would have been a natural representation of a commoner's weapon in the middle ages, and it's fascinating that the US and British expressions seem to have arisen quite independently of each other in two entirely different cultures.

I am grateful Bryan Hopkins for informing me that in the Book of Mormon, a history of the ancient Native American Indians, an episode is described in which a large group ' This is not to say of course that the expression dates back to that age, although it is interesting to note that the custom on which the saying is based in the US is probably very ancient indeed.

Unrelated but interestingly, French slang for the horse-drawn omnibus was 'four banal' which translated then to 'parish oven' - what a wonderful expression. Bear in mind that a wind is described according to where it comes from not where it's going to. A South wind comes from the South. Sailing 'by' a South wind would mean sailing virtually in a South direction - 'to the wind' almost into the wind. Different sails on a ship favoured winds from different directions, therefore to be able to sail 'by and large' meant that the ship sailed well 'one way or another' - 'to the wind and off it'.

Also, the expression used when steering a course of 'by and large' meant being able to using both methods of wind direction in relation to the ship and so was very non-specific. Early Scottish use of the word cadet, later caddie, was for an errand boy.

The golf usage of the caddie term began in the early s. Such warrants were used typically to enable a prisoner's freedom, or to imprison someone in the Bastille. The holder could fill in the beneficiary or victim's name. The practice was abolished on 15 January Heywood's collection is available today in revised edition as The Proverbs and Epigrams of John Heywood. Other sources suggest or later publication dates, which refer to revised or re-printed editions of the original collection.

Heywood was a favourite playwright of Henry VIII, and it is probably that his writings gained notoriety as a result. The English language was rather different in those days, so Heywood's version of the expression translates nowadays rather wordily as 'would ye both eat your cake and have your cake? Whether Heywood actually devised the expression or was the first to record it we shall never know.

Etymologist Michael Quinion is one who implies that the main credit be given to Heywood, citing Heywood's work as the primary source. Quinion also mentions other subsequent uses of the expression by John Keats in and Franklin D Roosevelt in , but by these times the expression could have been in popular use.

The word cake was used readily in metaphors hundreds of years ago because it was a symbol of luxury and something to be valued; people had a simpler less extravagant existence back then. Brewer tells of the tradition in USA slavery states when slaves or free descendents would walk in a procession in pairs around a cake at a social gathering or party, the most graceful pair being awarded the cake as a prize.

This also gave us the expression 'cake walk' and 'a piece of cake' both meaning a job or contest that's very easy to achieve or win, and probably although some disagree the variations 'take the biscuit' or 'take the bun', meaning to win although nowadays in the case of 'takes the biscuit' is more just as likely to be an ironic expression of being the worst, or surpassing the lowest expectations.

The variations of bun and biscuit probably reflect earlier meanings of these words when they described something closer to a cake. On which point, I am advised ack P Nix that the typically American version expression 'takes the cake' arguably precedes the typically British version of 'takes the biscuit'.

Maybe, maybe not, since 'takes the biscuit' seems to have a British claim dating back to see ' takes the biscuit '. This all raises further interesting questions about the different and changing meanings of words like biscuit and bun.

Biscuit in America is a different thing to biscuit in Britain, the latter being equivalent to the American 'cookie'. Bun to many people in England is a simple bread roll or cob, but has many older associations to sweeter baked rolls and cakes sticky bun, currant bun, iced bun, Chelsea bun, etc. The expression 'to call a spade a spade' is much older, dating back to at least BC, when it appeared in Aristophanes' play The Clouds he also wrote the play The Birds, in BC, which provided the source of the 'Cloud Cuckoo Land' expression.

At some stage between the 14th and 16th centuries the Greek word for trough 'skaphe:' was mis-translated within the expression into the Latin for spade - 'ligo' - almost certainly because Greek for a 'digging tool' was 'skapheion' - the words 'skaphe:' and 'skapheion' have common roots, which is understandable since both are hollowed-out concave shapes. This crucial error was believed to have been committed by Desiderius Erasmus Dutch humanist, , when translating work by Plutarch.

The translation into the English 'spade' is believed to have happened in by Nicolas Udall when he translated Erasmus's Latin version of the expression. While the origin of the expression is not racial or 'non-politically-correct', the current usage, by association with the perceived meaning of 'spade', most certainly is potentially racially sensitive and potentially non-PC, just as other similarly non-politically correct expressions have come to be so, eg 'nitty-gritty', irrespective of their actual origins.

Developed from Mark Israel's notes on this subject. Partridge suggests the origins of open a can of worms are Canadian, from c. The Canadian origins are said by Partridge to allude to a type of tin of worms typically purchased by week-end fishermen. The OED describes a can of worms as a 'complex and largely uninvestigated topic'.

Can of worms is said by Partridge to have appeared in use after the fuller open a can of worms expression, and suggests Canadian use started c. Interestingly Partridge refers to an expression 'open a tin' which apparently originated in the Royal Navy, meaning to start a quarrel, which clearly indicates that the metaphor in basic origins dates back earlier than the specific can of worms adaptation, which has since become perhaps the most widely used of all variations on this theme.

Cassells suggests s American origins for can of worms, and open a can of worms, and attributes a meanings respectively of 'an unpleasant, complex and unappetizing situation', and 'to unearth and display a situation that is bound to lead to trouble or to added and unwanted complexity'.

Cassells also refers to a s US expression 'open a keg of nails' meaning to get drunk on corn whisky, which although having only a tenuous association to the can of worms meanings, does serve to illustrate our natural use of this particular type of metaphor. Farther back in history the allusion to opening a container to unleash problems is best illustrated in by the 'Pandora's Box' expression from ancient Greek mythology, in which Pandora releases all the troubles of the world from a jar or box, depending on the interpretation you read which she was commanded by Zeus not to open.

The North American origins of this particular expression might be due to the history and development of the tin canning industry: The origins of tin cans began in the early s during the Anglo-French Napoleonic Wars, instigated by Napoleon Bonaparte or more likely his advisors when the French recognised the significant possibilities of being able to maintain fresh provisions for the French armies.

The French solution was initially provided via glass jars. In response, the British then developed tin cans, which were tested and proven around in response to the French glass technology. Development and large scale production of tin cans then moved to America, along with many emigrating canning engineers and entrepreneurs, where the Gold Rush and the American Civil War fuelled demand for improved canning technology and production.

The vast North American tin canning industry was built on these foundations, which has dominated the world in this sector ever since. According to Brewer , who favours the above derivation, 'card' in a similar sense also appears in Shakespeare's Hamlet, in which, according to Brewer, Osric tells Hamlet that Laertes is 'the card and calendar of gentry' and that this is a reference to the 'card of a compass' containing all the compass points, which one assumes would have been a removable dial within a compass instrument?

Brewer explains that the full expression in common use at the time mid-late s was 'card of the house', meaning a distinguished person. If the Shakespearian root is valid this meaning perhaps blended with and was subsequently further popularised by the playing card metaphor. Interestingly Brewer lists several other now obsolete expressions likening people and situations to cards. It's worth noting that playing cards were a very significant aspect of entertainment and amusement a few hundreds of years ago before TV and computers.

Hence why so many expressions derive from their use. See below. The origins of western style playing cards can be traced back to the 10th century, and it is logical to think that metaphors based on card playing games and tactics would have quite naturally evolved and developed into popular use along with the popularity of the playing cards games themselves, which have permeated most societies for the last thousand years, and certainly in a form that closely resembles modern playing cards for the past six hundred years.

The Vitello busied at Arezzo, the Orsini irritating the French; the war of Naples imminent, the cards are in my hands.. Caesar, or Cesare, Borgia, , was an infamous Italian - from Spanish roots - soldier, statesman, cardinal and murderer, brother of Lucrezia Borgia, and son of Pope Alexander VI. Playing cards have fascinating and less than clear histories and meanings in themselves, for which Brewer's provides an interesting and in my view largely reliable explanation: In Spain's early medieval playing cards , spades were columbines a plant whose flower resembles five clustered bird-like symbols, usually associated with doves or pigeons - the pointed spade shape resembles a single petal , later changing by s to swords espados in Spanish - meaning sword - not spade in case you are wondering ; clubs were rabbits later changing to cudgels bastos in Spanish, meaning a stick-like club ; diamonds were pinks relating to the flowers, so called because of their notched petal edges, as if cut with pinking shears - associated with the sharpness of the diamond shape - the same root that gave us punch and pungent and puncture later changing to dineros square money pieces ; and hearts were roses later to be chalices cups.

Here's where it gets really interesting: Brewer says that the English spades contrary to most people's assumption that the word simply relates to a spade or shovel tool instead developed from the French form of a pike ie. Hearts , says Brewer is a corruption of choeur choir-men into couers , ie. Brewer's view is that playing cards were developed from an Indian game called 'The Four Rajahs', which is consistent with the belief that the roots of playing cards were Asian.

In The Four Rajahs game the playing pieces were the King; the General referred to as 'fierche' ; the Elephant 'phil' ; the Horsemen; the Camel 'ruch' ; and the Infantry all of which has clear parallels with modern chess. Brewer asserts that the French corrupted, or more likely misinterpreted the word 'fierche' for general, ie. Similarly Brewer says that the Elephant, 'phil' presumably the third most powerful piece , was converted into 'fol' or 'fou', meaning Knave, equivalent to the 'Jack'.

Incidentally Brewer also suggests that the Camel, 'ruch', became what is now the Rook in chess. It seems according to Brewer that playing cards were originally called 'the Books of the Four Kings', while chess was known as 'the Game of the Four Kings'. Brewer also cites a reference to a certain Jacquemin Gringonneur having "painted and guilded three packs of cards for the King Charles VI, father of Charles VII mentioned above in As for the 'court' cards, so called because of their heraldic devices, debate continues as to the real identity of the characters and the extent to which French characters are reflected in English cards.

Prepare to be confused Brewer also suggests that French Queen cards were 'Argine' probably a reference to mythology or an anagram of regina, meaning queen - no-one seems to know , anyway Brewer's suggested queens are: Hearts - Juno sister and wife of Zeus ; Clubs - Judith Jewish heroine of the Bible Old Testament, or some say Judith of Bavaria, whoever she was These four Queens according to Brewer represented royalty, fortitude, piety and wisdom.

Not surprisingly all of these characters lived at the same time, the early s, which logically indicates when playing cards were first popularly established in the form we would recognise today, although obviously the King characters, with the exception of possible confusion between Charlemagne and Charles VII of France, pre-date the period concerned.

I did say this particular slice of history is less than clear. Nevertheless, by way of summary, here is Brewer's take on things:. If you weren't confused enough already, more recent French cards actually show the names of the characters on the cards which I suspect has kept this whole debate rolling , and these names reveal some inconsistencies with Brewer's otherwise mostly cohesive analysis, not least in the Queens department, namely: Queen of Hearts is Judith Juno does not appear ; and Queen of Clubs is 'Argine' instead of Judith whoever Argine is; again, no-one seems to know, save suggestions that it's an anagram of regina, meaning queen, or could be something to do with Argos.

Predictably there is much debate also as to the identities of the Jacks or Knaves, which appear now on the cards but of which Brewer made no comment. Lancelot - easy - fully paid-up knight of the round table. Hector - of Troy, or maybe brother of Lancelot. Hogier - possibly Ogier the Dane. If you have more information on this matter it is a can of worms if ever I saw one then I would be delighted to receive it.

The reason why the Ace of Spades in Anglo-American playing cards has a large and ornate design dates back to the s, when the English monarchy first began to tax the increasingly popular playing cards to raise extra revenues. The practice of stamping the Ace of Spades, probably because it was the top card in the pack, with the official mark of the relevant tax office to show that duty had been paid became normal in the s.

During the early s, when duty per pack was an incredible two shillings and sixpence half-a-crown - equivalent to one eigth of a pound - see the money expressions and history page , the the card makers were not permitted to make the Ace of Spades cards - instead they were printed by the tax office stamp-makers. Chambers and OED are clear in showing the earlier Latin full form of 'carnem levare', from medieval Latin 'carnelevarium', and that the derivation of the 'val' element is 'putting away' or 'removing', and not 'saying farewell, as some suggest.

OED in fact states that the connection with Latin 'vale', as if saying 'farewell to flesh' is due to 'popular' misundertood etymology. In my view the most logical explanation is that it relates to the 'cat-o-nine-tails' whip used in olden days maritime punishments, in which it is easy to imagine that the victim would be rendered incapable of speech or insolence. A less likely, but no less dramatic suggested origin, is that it comes from the supposed ancient traditional middle-eastern practice of removing the tongues of liars and feeding them to cats.

See also 'pig in a poke'. Additionally this expression might have been reinforced ack G Taylor by the maritime use of the 'cat 'o' nine tails' a type of whip which was kept in a velvet bag on board ship and only brought out to punish someone. In other words; a person's status or arrogance cannot actually control the opinions held about them by other people of supposedly lower standing - the version 'a cat may look at a king' is used in this sense when said by Alice, in Lewis Carroll's book 'Alice's Adventures In Wonderland'.

The different variations of this very old proverb are based on the first version, which is first referenced by John Heywood in his book, Proverbs. The origin is unknown, but it remains a superb example of how effective proverbs can be in conveying quite complex meanings using very few words. The more modern expression 'a cat may laugh at a queen' seems to be a more aggressive adaptation of the original medieval proverb 'a cat may look on a king', extending the original meaning, ie.

The red-handed image is straightforward enough to have evolved from common speech, that is to say, there's unlikely to have been one single quote that originated the expression. Chambers Dictionary of Etymology varies slightly with the OED in suggesting that charisma replaced the earlier English spelling charism first recorded before around The preference of the Shorter OED for the words charism and charismata plural suggests that popular use of charisma came much later than Chambers says the Greek root words are charisma and charizesthai to show favour , from charis favour, grace and related to chairein, meaning rejoice.

According to Chambers again, the adjective charismatic appeared in English around , from the Greek charismata, meaning favours given by God. Charisma, which probably grew from charismatic, which grew from charismata, had largely shaken its religious associations by the mid s, and evolved its non-religious meaning of personal magnetism by the s. More detail about the origins and interpretations of charisma is on the charisma webpage. The original Charlie whose name provided the origin for this rhyming slang is Charlie Smirke, the English jockey.

Charlie Smirke was a leading rider and racing celebrity from the ss, notably winning the Eclipse Stakes at Sandown Park in on Windsor Lad, and again in on the Aga Khan's horse Tulyar second place was the teenage Lester Piggott on Gay Time. See more cockney rhyming slang expressions, meanings and origins at the cockney rhyming slang section.

Later in the s the word chavi or chavo, etc. This old usage was not then necessarily insulting, unlike the modern meaning of chav, which most certainly is. The suggestion that chav is a shortening of Chatham, based on the alleged demographic of the Medway town in Kent, is not supported by any reliable etymology, but as with other myths of slang origins, the story might easily have reinforced popular usage, especially among people having a dim view of the Medway towns.

In the North-East of England according to Cassells the modern variants are charva and charver, which adds no credibility to the Chatham myth. Separately I am informed thanks N Johansen that among certain folk in the area of Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, CHAV is said to be an abbreviation of 'Cheltenham Average', a term supposedly coined by girls of the up-market Cheltenham Ladies College when referring to young men of the lower-market Cheltenham council housing estates.

Please send me any other theories and local interpretations of the word chav. The expression is increasingly used more widely in referring to a situation where substantial either unwanted or negatively viewed attention or pressure is being experienced by a person, usually by a man, perhaps from interviewers, photographers, followers, or perhaps investigators. In the case of adulation there may also a suggestion of toadiness or sycophancy creepy servitude. This is an adaptation of the earlier s expression to be 'all over' something or someone meaning to be obsessed or absorbed by something, someone, even oneself.

I'm keen to discover the earliest use of the 'cheap suit' expression - please tell me if you recall its use prior to , or better still can suggest a significant famous early quoted example which might have established it. Chinese fire drill - chaotic situation, especially one involving a group's incompetence in carrying out instructions or a plan more recently the term also describes a student prank where a car-full of students stops at red traffic lights, all occupants leap out, run around the car, return to their seats and drive off as the lights turn green - Usage of this wonderful expression in either situation now seems confined to USA; although it is supposed to have UK origins, and various sources state it being in use on both sides of the Atlantic after World War 1.

The expression 'Chinese fire drill' supposedly derives from a true naval incident in the early s involving a British ship, with Chinese crew: instructions were given by the British officers to practice a fire drill where crew members on the starboard side had to draw up water, run with it to engine room, douse the 'fire', at which other crew members to prevent flooding would pump out the spent water, carry it away and throw it over the port side.

After initially going to plan, fuelled by frantic enthusiasm as one side tried to keep pace with the other, the drill descended into chaos, ending with all crew members drawing up water from the starboard side, running with it across the ship, entirely by-passing the engine room, and throwing the un-used water straight over the port side. It's certainly an amusing metaphor, if these days an extremely politically incorrect one.

It's akin to other images alluding to the confusion and inconsistency that Westerners historically associated with Chinese language and culture, much dating back to the 1st World War. Other expressions exploiting the word 'Chinese' to convey confusing or erratic qualities: Chinese whispers confused messages , Chinese ace inept pilot , and Chinese puzzle a puzzle without a solution ; 'Chinese fire drill' is very much part of this genre.

Alternative rhyming slang are cream crackers and cream crackered, which gave rise to the expression 'creamed', meaning exhausted or beaten. See knackers. The words are the same now but they have different origins. In modern German the two words are very similar - klieben to split and kleben to stick, so the opposites-but-same thing almost works in the German language too, just like English, after over a thousand years of language evolution.

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The 'be' prefix is Old English meaning in this context to make or to cause, hence bereafian. The 'be' prefix and word reafian are cognate similar with the Old Frisian North Netherlands word birava, and also with the Old High German word biroubon. These and other cognates similar words from the same root can be traced back to very ancient Indo-European roots, all originating from a seminal meaning of rob.

Incidentally Cassells says the meaning of bereave in association with death first appeared in English only in the s, so the robbed meaning persisted until relatively modern times given the very old origins of the word. Thanks J R for raising the question. In fact the expression 'baer-saerk' with 'ae' pronounced as 'a' in the word 'anyhow' , means bear-shirt, which more likely stemmed from the belief that these fierce warriors could transform into animals, especially bears and wolves, or at least carry the spirit of the animal during extreme battle situations.

Thanks Cornelia for this more precise derivation. This derivation is also supported by the Old Icelandic word 'Beserkr', meaning 'bear-shirt'. I am additionally informed thanks F Tims that: " By their account, the 'bar-sark' was worn only by members of the Norse chieftan's personal bodyguard, they being the most ferocious, and thus the most feared, of the Vikings plundering eastern Scotland and the hapless Dane-mark.

So, according to the book, the term does not apply to all invading Vikings, just the more obnoxious. In the book, also, the Norse word 'bar' or 'baer', as the case may be means 'wolf', from the hide of which the shirt was made, so it would be a 'wolf-shirt' Champions - Professed fighting men were often kept by kings and earls about their court as useful in feud and fray. Harald Fairhair's champions are admirably described in the contemporary Raven Song by Hornclofe - "Wolf-coats they call them that in battle bellow into bloody shields.

They wear wolves' hides when they come into the fight, and clash their weapons together These baer-sarks, or wolf coats of Harald give rise to an Old Norse term, 'baer sark', to describe the frenzy of fight and fury which such champions indulged in, barking and howling, and biting their shield-rims Voltaire wrote in ' If this is best of possible worlds If this is the best of possible worlds, what then are the others?..

Another famous writer of his time, though less renowned today American James Branch Cable, , might well have contributed to the popular use of the term when he used it in his novel 'The Silver Stallion' in , when he created a frequently repeated ironically amusing expression in its own right: ' The optimist proclaims that we live in the best of all possible worlds; and the pessimist fears this is true.. The fact that the quotes feature in the definitive quotations work, Bartletts Familiar Quotations first published and still going bears out the significance of the references.

Related no doubt to this, the s expression 'biblical neckline' was a euphemistic sexual slang term for a low neckline a pun on the 'lo and behold' expression found in the bible. Thanks Ben for suggesting the specific biblical quote. It is both a metaphor based on the size of the bible as a book, and more commonly a description by association to many of the particularly disastrous epic events described in the bible, for example: famines, droughts, plagues of locusts, wars, mass exodus, destruction of cities and races, chariots of fire, burning bushes, feeding of thousands, parting of seas, etc.

The use of the word biblical to mean huge seems first to have been applied first to any book of huge proportions, which was according to Cassells etymology dictionary first recorded in in a work called Piers Ploughman.

It is logical that over the centuries since then that the extension of 'biblical proportions' to describe huge events would have occurred in common speech quite naturally, because the association is so appropriate and obvious. The slang 'big cheese' is a fine example of language from a far-away or entirely foreign culture finding its way into modern life and communications, in which the users have very awareness or appreciation of its different cultural origins.

This would suggest that some distortion or confusion led to the expression's development. It's easy to imagine that people confused the earlier meaning with that of the female garment and then given the feminine nature of the garment, attached the derogatory weak 'girly' or 'sissy' meaning.

I received this helpful information thanks N Swan, April about the expression: " Hence perhaps the northern associations and s feel. A catchphrase can get into the public vernacular very rapidly - in a very similar vein, I've heard people referring to their friends as a 'Nancy Boy Potter', a name taken directly from the schoolmaster sketch in Rowan Atkinson's mids one-man show Kipling reinforced the expression when he wrote in that the secret of power ' It's the liftable stick.

The term is found also in pottery and ceramic glazing for the same reason. Takes the biscuit seems according to Patridge to be the oldest of the variations of these expressions, which essentially link achievement metaphorically to being awarded a baked confectionery prize. Heaven knows why though, and not even Partridge can suggest any logic for that one.

Incidentally, the expression 'takes the biscuit' also appears thanks C Freudenthal more than once in the dialogue of a disreputable character in one of James Joyce's Dubliners stories, published in I am informed additionally thanks J Finnie, Verias Vincit History Group, Oct of a different interpretation, paraphrased thus: Rather than bullets, historic accounts tell of men bitting down on leather straps when undergoing primative medical practice.

Biting on a round metal brass bullet would have been both a potential choking hazard, and extremely hard to do. However in the days of paper cartridges, a soldier in a firing line would have 'bitten off' the bullet, to allow him to pour the gunpowder down the barrel, before spitting the ball bullet down after the powder, then ramming the paper in as wadding.

This would have left a salty nasty-tasting traces of gun powder in the soldier's mouth. So, 'bite the bullet' in this respect developed as a metaphor referring to doing something both unpleasent and dangerous. If you can offer any further authoritative information about the origins of this phrase please let me know. With hindsight, the traditional surgical metaphor does seem a little shaky. When the rope had been extended to the bitter end there was no more left. Captain Stuart Nicholls MNI contacted me to clarify further: "Bitter end is in fact where the last link of the anchor chain is secured to the vessel's chain locker, traditionally with a weak rope link.

Nowadays it is attached through the bulkhead to a sturdy pin. The term 'bitter end' is as it seems to pay out the anchor until the bitter end. Incidentally, the expression 'He's swinging the lead ' comes from days before sonar was used to detect under keel depth. A man was placed forward and swung a lead weight with a length of rope.

A difficult and tiring task, so seamen would often be seen from aft 'swinging the lead' instead of actually letting go. The origin also gave us the word 'bride'. Strictly for the birds. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable certainly makes no mention of it which suggests it is no earlier than 20th century.

The term alludes the small brains of birds, and expressions such as 'bird-brain', as a metaphor for people of limited intelligence. The balls were counted and if there were more blacks than reds or whites then the membership application was denied - the prospective new member was 'blackballed'. In addition I am informed by one who seems to know To vote for admitting the new person, the voting member transfers a white cube to another section of the box.

To vote against, a black ball is inserted. One black ball is enough to exclude the potential member. See also 'pipped at the post' the black ball was called a pip - after the pip of a fruit, in turn from earlier similar words which meant the fruit itself, eg pippin, and the Greek, pepe for melon - so pipped became another way or saying blackballed or defeated. These, from their constant attendance about the time of the guard mounting, were nick-named the blackguards.

These various explanations, origins and influences of the 'black Irish' expression, from a range of sources including Cassells, Hobson-Jobson, Oxford, Chambers, historical writings on Irish history, specialist online discussion groups, are as follows:. In summary, despite there being no evidence in print, there seems to me to be sufficient historical evidence as to the validity of the Armada theory as being the main derivation and that other usages are related to this primary root.

I say this because: there is truth in the history; it is likely that many Spanish came ashore and settled after the Armada debacle, and people of swarthy appearance were certainly called black. Also the Armada theory seems to predate the other possible derivations. From this point the stories and legends about the Armada and the 'black Irish' descendents would have provided ample material for the expression to become established and grow.

Following this, the many other usages, whether misunderstandings of the true origin and meaning ie. A simple example sent to me thanks S Price is the derogatory and dubious notion that the term refers to Irish peasants who burnt peat for fuel, which, according to the story, produces a fine soot causing people to take on a black appearance.

The 'black Irish' expression will no doubt continue to be open to widely varying interpretations and folklore. I am also informed thanks C Parker of perhaps another explanation for the 'Mediterranean' appearance darker skin and hair colouring notably of some Irish people and giving rise to the Black Irish term, namely the spread of refugee Spanish Moors across Europe, including into Ireland, in the 8th, 9th and 17th centuries.

If anyone knows of any specific references which might support this notion and to link it with the Black Irish expression please tell me. Nor sadly do official dictionaries give credence to the highly appealing suggestion that the black market expression derives from the illicit trade in stolen graphite in England and across the English channel to France and Flanders, during the reign of Elizabeth I It is true that uniquely pure and plentiful graphite deposits were mined at Borrowdale, Cumbria, England.

And there was seemingly a notable illegal trade in the substance. In the 16th century graphite was used for moulds in making cannon balls, and was also in strong demand for the first pencils. The Borrowdale mine was apparently the only large source of pure graphite in Europe, perhaps globally, and because of its military significance and value, it was taken over by the Crown in Elizabeth I's reign.

The mine and its graphite became such a focus of theft and smuggling that, according to local history thanks D Hood , this gave rise to the expression 'black market'. Frustratingly however, official reference books state that the black market term was first recorded very much later, around This is a pity because the Borrowdale graphite explanation is fascinating, appealing, and based on factual history. However, while a few years, perhaps a few decades, of unrecorded use may predate any first recorded use of an expression, several hundred years' of no recorded reference at all makes it impossible to reliably validate such an origin.

We might conclude that given the research which goes into compiling official reference books and dictionaries, underpinned by the increasing opportunity for submitted evidence and corrections over decades, its is doubtful that the term black market originated from a very old story or particular event.

If there were any such evidence it would likely have found its way into the reference books by now. The expression black market is probably simply the logical use of the word black to describe something illegal, probably popularised by newspapers or other commentators. The word black is a natural choice and readily understood for describing anything negative, theatening or illicit, and has been used, in some cases for centuries, to describe all sorts of unapproved, sinister or illegal things - e.

The first use and popularity of the black market term probably reflect the first time in Western history that consumer markets were tightly regulated and undermined on a very wide and common scale, in the often austere first half of the s, during and between the world wars of and more so in Further to the above entry I am informed thanks Dr A Summers, Mar of another fascinating suggestion of origin: " The market town of Crieff in Perthshire was the main cattle market up till , but at the start there was opposition from the Provost in Perth, so there was an illegal trade in cattle before it became the official Drover's Tryst or cattle market.

The cattle were known as The Black hence the origin of the regiment The Black Watch, a militia started to protect the drovers from rustlers so the illegal market was known as the 'black market' Legend has it that whoever kisses the blarney stone will enjoy the same ability as MacCarthy.

When a person is said to 'have kissed the Blarney stone', it is a reference to their having the gift of persuasion. Another interpretation thanks R Styx , and conceivably a belief once held by some, is that sneezing expelled evil spirits from a person's body. A contributory factor was the association of sneezing with the Black Death Bubonic Plague which ravaged England and particularly London in the 14th and 17th centuries. In more recent times the expression has been related ack D Slater to the myth that sneezing causes the heart to stop beating, further reinforcing the Bless You custom as a protective superstition.

Perhaps also influenced by African and African-American 'outjie', leading to okey without the dokey , meaning little man. Various references have been cited in Arabic and Biblical writings to suggest that it was originally based on Middle- and Far-Eastern customs, in which blood rituals symbolised bonds that were stronger than family ones. However the expression has certainly been in use for hundreds of years with its modern interpretation - ie. In this sense, the metaphor is such an obvious one that it is likely to have evolved separately from the supposed 'blood brothers' meaning, with slightly different variations from different societies, over the many hundreds of years that the expression has been in use.

Bloody seems to have acquired the unacceptable 'swearing' sense later than when first used as a literal description bloody battle, bloody body, bloody death, bloody assizes, etc or as a general expression of extreme related to the older associations of the blood emotions or feelings in the four temperaments or humours , which were very significant centuries ago in understanding the human condition and mood, etc.

The modern expression bloody-minded still carries this sense, which connects with the qualities of the blood temperament within the four humours concept. The mild oath ruddy is a very closely linked alternative to bloody, again alluding to the red-faced characteristics within the four humours.

Oxford Word Histories confirms bloody became virtually unprintable around the mids, prior to which it was not an offensive term even when used in a non-literal sense i. In terms of a major source or influence on the expression's development, Oxford agrees largely with Brewer's dictionary of phrase and fable, which explains that the use of the word 'bloody' in the expletive sense " Rowdy aristocrats were called 'Bloods' after the term for a thoroughbred horse, a 'blood-horse' as in today's 'bloodstock' term, meaning thoroughbred horses.

Clearly, the blood-horse metaphor captures both the aristocratic and unpredictable or wild elements of this meaning. The use of blood in this 'aristocratic' sense would have been reinforced by other similar metaphors: 'blood' was and still is a term used also to refer to family descent, and appears in many other lineage-related expressions, such as 'blood is thicker than water' people are more loyal to their family members than to other people and 'blue blood' royalty or aristocratic people - an expression coming into England from France where 'sang blue' means of high aristocratic descent, the notion originating in Spain when it was believed that pre-Moorish old Spanish families had blue blood whereas the common people's blood was black.

The blue blood imagery would have been strengthened throughout Western society by the idea of aristocratic people having paler skin, which therefore made their veins and blood appear more blue than normal people's. It is commonly suggested thanks B Bunker, J Davis that 'bloody' is a corruption of a suggested oath, 'By our Lady', which could have contributed to the offensive perception of the expression, although I believe would not have been its origin as an expletive per se.

Whatever, extending this point thanks A Sobot , the expression 'By our Lord' might similarly have been retrospectively linked, or distorted to add to the 'bloody' mix. The flag is a blue rectangle with a solid white rectangle in the middle; 'peter' is from the French, 'partir' meaning 'to leave'. Additionally, ack G Jackson , the blue and white 'blue peter' flag is a standard nautical signal flag which stands for the letter 'P'.

The letter 'P' is associated with the word 'peter' in many phonetic alphabets, including those of the English and American military, and it is possible that this phonetic language association was influenced by the French 'partir' root. Phonetic alphabet details. This table meaning of board is how we got the word boardroom too, and the popular early s piece of furniture called a sideboard.

See also the expression 'sweep the board', which also refers to the table meaning of board. In this sense the expression also carried a hint of sarcastic envy or resentment, rather like it's who you know not what you know that gets results, or 'easy when you know how'. Since then the meaning has become acknowledging, announcing or explaining a result or outcome that is achieved more easily than might be imagined.

Nowadays the term 'bohemian' does not imply gypsy associations necessarily or at all, instead the term has become an extremely broad and flexible term for people, behaviour, lifestyle, places, atmosphere, attitudes, etc. Thus, a person could be described as bohemian; so could a coffee-shop, or a training course or festival. Bohemian is a fascinating word - once a geographical region, and now a description of style which can be applied and interpreted in many different ways.

The sense is in giving someone a small concession begrudgingly, as a token, or out of sympathy or pity. The giver an individual or a group is in a position of dominance or authority, and the recipient of the bone is seeking help, approval, agreement, or some other positive response.

It is a simple metaphor based on the idea of throwing a hungry dog a bone to chew on a small concession instead of some meat which the dog would prefer. The metaphor also alludes to the sense that a bone provides temporary satisfaction and distraction, and so is a tactical or stalling concession, and better than nothing. It is not widely used in the UK and it is not in any of my reference dictionaries, which suggests that in the English language it is quite recent - probably from the end of the 20th century.

According to various online discussions about this expression it is apparently featured in a film, as the line, "Throw me a bone down here Apparently ack Matthew Stone the film was first Austin Powers movie 'Austin Powers:International Man of Mystery' , from a scene in which Dr Evil is trying to think of schemes, but because he has been frozen for years, his ideas have either already happened or are no longer relevant and so attract little enthusiasm, which fits the expression's meaning very well.

I am further informed ack P Nix " It most certainly appeared prior to the Austin Powers movies since the usage of it in the movie was intended to be a humorous use of the already commonly used expression. It is also commonly used in the United States as 'Toss me a bone. In Argentina we use that expression very often. It is not pityful pitying at all It may have a funny meaning too I'm not sure of the origin of this phrase, but it was used in in French in 'The Law' by Frederic Bastiat.

Here it is translated - 'The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to vote - and will overthrow society rather than not to obtain it. Even beggars and vagabonds will then prove to you that they also have an incontestable title to vote. They will say to you: "We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the tax.

And a part of the tax that we pay is given by law - in privileges and subsidies - to men who are richer than we are. Others use the law to raise the prices of bread, meat, iron, or cloth. Thus, since everyone else uses the law for his own profit, we also would like to use the law for our own profit. We demand from the law the right to relief, which is the poor man's plunder. To obtain this right, we also should be voters and legislators in order that we may organize Beggary on a grand scale for our own class, as you have organized Protection on a grand scale for your class.

Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, , francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to gnaw. We have other claims. And anyway, we wish to bargain for ourselves as other classes have bargained for themselves! The extract does not prove that the expression was in wide use in France in the mids, but it does show a similar and perhaps guiding example for interpreting the modern usage.

If you know anything more about the origins of "throw me a bone" - especially the expression occurring in a language other than English, please tell me. The gannet-like seabird, the booby, is taken from Spanish word for the bird, bobo, which came into English around There seems no evidence for the booby bird originating the meaning of a foolish person, stupid though the booby bird is considered to be. The sense of booby meaning fool extended later to terms like booby-trap and booby-hatch lunatic asylum , and also to the verb form of boob, meaning to make a mistake or blunder i.

I am informed thanks Mr Morrison that the wilderness expert Ray Mears suggested booby-trap derives from the old maritime practice of catching booby seabirds when they flew onto ships' decks. The US later early 20th C adapted the word boob to mean a fool. The ultimate origins can be seen in the early development of European and Asian languages, many of which had similar words meaning babble or stammer, based on the repetitive 'ba' sound naturally heard or used to represent the audible effect or impression of a stammerer or a fool.

It is probable that this basic 'baba' sound-word association also produced the words babe and baby, and similar variations in other languages. The mainly UK-English reference to female breasts boob, boobs, boob-tube, etc is much more recent s - boob-tube was s although these derive from the similar terms bubby and bubbies. Separately, thanks B Puckett, since the s, 'boob-tube' has been US slang for a television, referring to idiocy on-screen, and the TV cathode-ray 'tube' technology, now effectively replaced by LCD flatscreens.

Incidentally a UK 'boob-tube' garment is in the US called a 'tube-top'. Returning to boobs meaning breasts, Partridge amusingly notes that bubby is 'rare in the singular Bubby and bubbies meaning breasts appeared in the late s, probably derived from the word bub, both noun and verb for drink, in turn probably from Latin bibire, perhaps reinforced by allusion to the word bubble, and the aforementioned 'baba' sound associated with babies.

My thanks to John L for raising the question of the booby, initially seeking clarification of its meaning in the Gilbert and Sullivan line from Trial by Jury, when the judge sings "I'd a frock-tailed coat of a beautiful blue, and brief that I bought for a booby Men who 'took the King's shilling' were deemed to have contracted to serve in the armed forces, and this practice of offering the shilling inducement led to the use of the technique in rather less honest ways, notably by the navy press-gangs who would prey on drunks and unsuspecting drinkers close to port.

Unscrupulous press-gangers would drop a shilling into a drinker's pint of ale, which was then in a pewter or similar non-transparent vessel , and if the coin was undetected until the ale was consumed the press-gangers would claim that the payment had been accepted, whereupon the poor victim would be dragged away to spend years at sea. Pubs and drinkers became aware of this practice and the custom of drinking from glass-bottom tankards began.

The 'bottoms up' expression then naturally referred to checking for the King's shilling at the bottom of the tankard. Ack J Burbedge. This expression is a wonderful example of how certain expressions origins inevitably evolve, without needing necessarily any particular origin. There might be one of course, but it's very well buried if there is, and personally I think the roots of the saying are entirely logical, despite there being no officially known source anywhere.

Partridge for instance can offer only that brass monkey in this sense was first recorded in the s with possible Australian origins. Cassells says late s and possible US origins. The OED is no more helpful either in suggesting the ultimate source. Allen's English Phrases is more revealing in citing an source unfortunately not named : "He was told to be silent, in a tone of voice which set me shaking like a monkey in frosty weather In fact the expression most likely evolved from another early version 'Cold enough to freeze the tail off a brass monkey', which apparently is first recorded in print in Charles A Abbey's book Before the Mast in the Clippers, around , which featured the author's diaries from his time aboard American clippers fast merchant sailing ships from The switch from tail to balls at some stage probably around the turn of the s proved irresistible to people, for completely understandable reasons: it's much funnier, much more illustrative of bitter cold, and the alliteration repeating of the B sound is poetically much more pleasing.

The notion of a brass monkey would have appealed on many levels: monkeys have long been associated with powerful imagery three wise monkeys - see no evil, etc and the word is incorporated within various popular terminology monkey wrench, monkey puzzle, monkey suit, etc.

And aside from the allusion to brass monkey ornaments, brass would have been the metal of choice because it was traditionally associated with strength and resilience more so than copper or tin for instance ; also brass is also very much more phonetically enjoyable than iron, steel or bronze. It simply sounds good when spoken. Zinc and platinum are complete non-starters obviously. So it had to be brass. The choice of monkey - as opposed to any other creature - is also somehow inevitable given a bit of logical thought.

Here goes Certain iconic animals with good tails can be discounted immediately for reasons of lacking euphonic quality meaning a pleasing sound when spoken ; for example, brass horse, brass mouse, brass rat, brass scorpion, brass crocodile and brass ass just don't roll off the tongue well enough. No good either would have been any creatures not possessing a suitably impressive and symbolic tail, which interestingly would effectively have ruled out virtually all the major animal images like cow, elephant, pig, bear, dog, rabbit, lion, tiger, and most of the B-list like rhino, giraffe, deer, not to mention C-listers like hamster, badger, tortoise, all birds, all fish and all insects.

We can also forget the well-endowed lemurs, platypii, and chameleons for reasons of obscurity: a metaphor must be reasonably universal to become popular. Which pretty well leaves just a cat and a monkey, and who on earth has ever seen a brass cat? It's just not a notion that conveys anything at all. So it kind of just had to be a monkey because nothing else would have worked. That's my theory, and I'm sticking to it unless anyone has a better idea. This is the way that a lot of expressions become established and hugely popular - they just are right in terms of sound and imagery, and often it's that simple.

Incidentally a popular but entirely mythical theory for the 'freeze the balls off a brass monkey' version suggests a wonderfully convoluted derivation from the Napoleonic Wars and the British Navy's Continental Blockade of incoming French supplies. The story goes that where the British warships found themselves in northerly frozen waters the cannonballs contracted shrank in size due to cold more than their brass receptacle supposedly called the 'monkey' and fell onto the deck.

Or so legend has it. Unfortunately there was never a brass receptacle for cannonballs called a monkey. Ships did actually have a 'monkey rail' just above the quarter rail, wherever that was but this was not related to cannonballs at all, and while there was at one time a cannon called a monkey, according to Longridge's The Anatomy of Nelson's Ships, cannonballs were actually stored on the gun deck on wooden boards with holes cut in them, called short garlands, not monkeys.

What we see here is an example of a mythical origin actually supporting the popularity of the expression it claims to have spawned, because it becomes part of folklore and urban story-telling, so in a way it helps promote the expression, but it certainly isn't the root of it. To understand the root, very commonly we need simply to understand how language works, and then it all makes sense.

I am grateful for A Zambonini's help in prompting and compiling this entry. Neck was a northern English 19th slang century expression some sources suggest with origins in Australia meaning audacity or boldness - logically referring to a whole range of courage and risk metaphors involving the word neck, and particularly with allusions to hanging, decapitation, wringing of a chicken's neck - 'getting it in the neck', 'sticking your neck out', and generally the idea of exposing or extending one's neck in a figurative display of intentional or foolhardy personal risk.

As regards brass, Brewer lists 'brass' as meaning impudence. The modern OED meanings include effrontery shameless insolence. Brassy means pretentious or impudent. Brass is also an old 19thC word for a prostitute. Some of these meanings relate to brass being a cheap imitation of gold.

Some of the meanings also relate to brass being a very hard and resilient material. Phonetically there is also a similarity with brash, which has similar meanings - rude, vulgarly self-assertive probably derived from rash, which again has similar meanings, although with less suggestion of intent, more recklessness. At some stage during the 20th century brass and neck were combined to form brass neck and brass necked.

Many sources identify the hyphenated brass-neck as a distinctly military expression same impudence and boldness meanings , again 20th century, and from the same root words and meanings, although brass as a slang word in the military has other old meanings and associations, eg, top brass and brass hat, both referring to officers because of their uniform adornments , which would have increased the appeal and usage of the brass-neck expression in military circles.

Most dramatically, the broken leg suffered by assassin John Wilkes Booth. Booth, an actor, assassinated President Lincoln's on 14 April , at Ford's Theatre in Washington DC and broke his leg while making his escape, reportedly while jumping from Lincoln's box onto the stage. Later research apparently suggests the broken leg was suffered later in his escape, but the story became firmly embedded in public and thesbian memory, and its clear connections with the expression are almost irresistible, especially given that Booth was considered to have been daringly lucky in initially escaping from the theatre.

His luck ran out though as he was shot and killed resisting capture twelve days later. Etymologist Michael Sheehan is among those who suggests the possible Booth source, although he cites and prefers Eric Partridge's suggestion that the saying derives from " The phrase in the German theatre was Hals und Beinbruch, neck and leg break Interestingly according to Cassells, break a leg also means 'to be arrested' in US slang first recorded from , and 'to hurry' from , which again seems to fit with the JW Booth story.

Bear in mind that actual usage can predate first recorded use by many years. Cassells reminds us that theatrical superstition discourages the use of the phrase 'good luck', which is why the coded alternative was so readily adopted in the theatre. Cassells inserts a hyphen and expands the meaning of the German phrase, 'Hals-und Beinbruch', to 'may you break your neck and leg', which amusingly to me and utterly irrelevantly, seems altogether more sinister.

Such are the delights of translation. Incidentally my version of Partridge's dictionary also suggests break a leg, extending to 'break a leg above the knee', has been an English expression since first recorded meaning " Broken-legged also referred to one who had been seduced. Such are the delights of early English vulgar slang..

As a footnote pun intended to the seemingly natural metaphor and relationship between luck and leg-breaking is the wonderful quote penned by George Santayana Spanish-Amercian literary philosopher, in his work Character and Opinion in the United States : "All his life [the American] jumps into the train after it has started and jumps out before it has stopped; and he never once gets left behind, or breaks a leg.

On a different track, I am informed, which I can neither confirm nor deny thanks Steve Fletcher, Nov : " In older theatres the device used to raise the curtain was a winch with long arms called 'legs'. If the performance was very successful the legmen might have to raise the curtain so many times they might - 'break a leg' Anyone who has spent time on stage in the theater [US spelling] knows how jealous other players can be of someone whom the audience is rapt with.

By way of the back-handed compliment intended to undermine the confidence of an upcoming star, an envious competitor might gush appreciation at just how great one is and with work how much greater one will be. The young star goes out flush with flattery and, preoccupied with his future fame, promptly falls on his proverbial face.

So, one learns in time to be suspicious of disingenuous praise. On the other hand, someone genuinely wishing you well will say 'Break a leg'. This mocks the false flattery and acknowledges that that stage can be perilous to someone with their head in the clouds.

If not paying attention one could literally break a leg by falling into the pit. The reverse psychology helps one to 'stay grounded' so to speak. The Italian saying appears to be translatable to 'Into the wolf's mouth,' which, to me is a reference to the insatiable appetite of the audience for diversion and novelty. And if you don't satisfy them, they will 'eat you alive' In Italian it is often actually considered bad luck to wish someone good luck 'Buona Fortuna' , especially before an exam, performance or something of the kind.

Italians instead use the expression 'In bocca al lupo', which literally means 'Into the wolf's mouth' And this thanks J Yuenger, Jan , which again I can neither confirm nor deny: " I see you had a question on 'Break a leg,' and as a theatre person I had always heard of break a leg as in 'bend a knee,' apparently a military term. The idea being that if you tell an actor to break a leg, it is the same as telling him to deliver a performance worthy of a bow.

As a common theme I've seen running through stage superstitions, actors need to be constantly reminded that they need to do work in order to make their performances the best. Thus, if you wished an actor good luck, they would stop trying as hard at the show, because luck was on their side Break a leg derives from wishing an actor to be lucky enough to be surprised by the presence of royalty in the theatre US theater , as in a 'command performance'.

These shows would start by acknowledging the presence of the royal guests with the entire cast on stage at bended knee. The suggestion of 'a broken leg' wishes for the actor the good fortune of performing for royalty and the success that would follow due to their visit to your theatre I am German, and we indeed have the saying 'Hals-und Beinbruch' which roughly means 'break a neck and leg'.

The origin of that saying is not proven but widely believed to originate from the Jewish 'hazloche un broche' which means 'luck and blessing', and itself derives from the Hebrew 'hazlacha we bracha', with the same meaning. For Germans failing to understand 'hazloch un broche', this sounds similar to 'hals und bruch' meaning 'neck and break'. Given that this has no real meaning, a natural interpretation would be 'hals und beinbruch', especially since 'bein' did not only mean 'leg', but also was used for 'bones' in general, giving the possible translation of 'break your neck and bones'.

That it was considered back luck to wish for what you really want 'Don't jinx it! Such ironic wishes - 'anti-jinxes' - appear in most languages - trying to jinx the things we seek to avoid. In Germany 'Hals-und Beinbruch' is commonly used when people go skiing. Fishermen use a variation: 'Mast-und Schotbruch', which means on a boat 'break the the main poles' which hold the sails. The German 'break' within 'Hals-und Beinbruch' it is not an active verb, like in the English 'break a leg', but instead a wish for the break to happen.

The German 'Hals- und Beinbruch' most likely predates the English 'break a leg', and the English is probably a translation of the German Thanks to Neale for the initial question. If anyone can offer any more about Break a Leg please let me know. This sense is supported by the break meaning respite or relaxation, as in tea-break. Both senses seem to have developed during the 19th century. Earliest usage of break meaning luck was predominantly USA, first recorded in according to Partridge.

The term Brummie extends also to anything from Birmingham, and also more widely to the surrounding West Midlands region of the UK, especially when used by UK folk living quite a long way from Birmingham.

Many English southerners, for example, do not have a very keen appreciation for the geographical and cultural differences between Birmingham and Coventry, or Birmingham and Wolverhampton. Interestingly, although considered very informal slang words, Brum and Brummie actually derive from the older mids English name for Birmingham: Brummagem, and similar variants, which date back to the Middle Ages. In past times Brummagem also referred informally to cheap jewellery and plated wares, fake coins, etc.

The root word is bakh'sheesh in Arabic, notably from what was Persia now Iran , with variations in Urdu and Turkish, meaning a gift or a present. I am grateful for the following note from Huw Thomas in the Middle East: " It comes from the Arabic word bakh'sheesh, meaning 'free' or 'gift'. In Arabic today, it refers to the tip given to a restaurant waiter.

The precise reference to buck a male deer in this sense - buckshot, buckknife, or some other buckhorn, buckskin or other buck-related item - is not proven and remains open to debate, and could be a false trail. While 'pass the buck' seems generally accepted among the main dictionaries and references as card-playing terminology for passing the deal or pot, and is generally accepted as the metaphorical origin of the modern expression meaning to pass the problem or responsibility, uncertainty remains as to what exactly the buck was.

No-one knows for sure. To complicate matters further, buck and bucking are words used in card-playing quite aside from the 'pass the buck' expression referring to dealing. For example - an extract from the wonderful Pictorial History of the Wild West by Horan and Sann, published in , includes the following reference to Wild Bill Hickock: " He didn't wear down the two-inch heels of his sixty-dollar boots patrolling the streets to make law 'n order stick.

He spent most of his time bucking the cards in the saloons This reference is simply to the word buck meaning rear up or behave in a challenging way, resisting, going up against, challenging, taking on, etc.

So while we can be fairly sure that the card-playing terminology 'pass the buck' is the source of the modern saying, we cannot be certain of what exactly the buck was. My thanks to S Karl for prompting the development of this explanation. I am grateful ack K Eshpeter for the following contributed explanation: "It wasn't until the s when Harry Truman became president that the expression took on an expanded meeting. Truman was a man of the people and saw the office of president of the US as a foreboding responsibility for which he had ultimate accountability.

He kept a sign on his desk in the Oval Office to remind him of this and it is where the expression 'The Buck Stops Here' originated. Most people will know that bugger is an old word - it's actually as old as the 12th century in English - and that it refers to anal intercourse. A bugger is a person who does it. Bugger is the verb to do it. Buggery is the old word describing the act or offence, as was, and remains, in certain circumstances and parts of the world. The commonly unmentionable aspect of the meaning see Freud's psychosexual theory as to why bottoms and pooh are so emotionally sensitive for many people caused the word to be developed, and for it to thrive as an oath.

It's all about fear, denial and guilt. What's more surprising about the word bugger is where it comes from: Bugger is from Old French end of the first millennium, around AD , when the word was bougre, which then referred to a sodomite and a heretic, from the Medieval Latin word Bulgarus, which meant Bulgarian, based on the reputation of a sect of Bulgarian heretics, which was alleged and believed no doubt by their critics and opponents to indulge in homosexual practices.

It is fascinating that a modern word like bugger, which has now become quite a mild and acceptable oath, contains so much richness of social and psychological history. In terms of fears and human hang-ups it's got the lot - religious, ethnic, sexual, social - all in one little word.

See also sod , whose usage and origins are related. This metaphor may certainly have helped to reinforce the expression, but is unlike to have been the origin. More probable is the derivation suggested by Brewer in that first, bears became synonymous with reducing prices, notably the practice of short selling, ie.

This terminology, Brewer suggests referring to Dr Warton's view on the origin came from the prior expression, 'selling the skin before you have caught the bear'. This proverb was applied to speculators in the South Sea Bubble scheme, c. So was the huntsman by the bear oppressed, whose hide he sold before he caught the beast The bull and bear expressions have been in use since at least as far back as ; according to financial writer Don Luskin, reference and explanation of bull and bear meanings appears in the book Every Man His Own Broker, or, A Guide to Exchange Alley, by Thomas Mortimer.

Luskin says his 10th edition copy of the book was printed in Other references: David W. The bum refers both to bum meaning tramp, and also to the means of ejection, i. Bum also alludes to a kick up the backside, being another method of propulsion and ejection in such circumstances. Less easy to understand is the use of the word rush, until we learn that the earlier meaning of the word rush was to drive back and repel, also to charge, as in Anglo-French russher, and Old French russer, the flavour of which could easily have been retained in the early American-English use of the word.

Hatchet is a very old word, meaning axe, and probaby derived from Old German happa for scythe or sickle. The hatchet as an image would have been a natural representation of a commoner's weapon in the middle ages, and it's fascinating that the US and British expressions seem to have arisen quite independently of each other in two entirely different cultures.

I am grateful Bryan Hopkins for informing me that in the Book of Mormon, a history of the ancient Native American Indians, an episode is described in which a large group ' This is not to say of course that the expression dates back to that age, although it is interesting to note that the custom on which the saying is based in the US is probably very ancient indeed. Unrelated but interestingly, French slang for the horse-drawn omnibus was 'four banal' which translated then to 'parish oven' - what a wonderful expression.

Bear in mind that a wind is described according to where it comes from not where it's going to. A South wind comes from the South. Sailing 'by' a South wind would mean sailing virtually in a South direction - 'to the wind' almost into the wind. Different sails on a ship favoured winds from different directions, therefore to be able to sail 'by and large' meant that the ship sailed well 'one way or another' - 'to the wind and off it'.

Also, the expression used when steering a course of 'by and large' meant being able to using both methods of wind direction in relation to the ship and so was very non-specific. Early Scottish use of the word cadet, later caddie, was for an errand boy. The golf usage of the caddie term began in the early s. Such warrants were used typically to enable a prisoner's freedom, or to imprison someone in the Bastille. The holder could fill in the beneficiary or victim's name.

Things deteriorated until Townshend had a nervous breakdown and abandoned Lifehouse. Recording at the Record Plant in New York City in March was abandoned when Lambert's addiction to hard drugs interfered with his ability to produce. After touring Who's Next , and needing time to write a follow-up, Townshend insisted that the Who take a lengthy break, as they had not stopped touring since the band started.

Tensions began to emerge as Townshend believed Daltrey just wanted a money-making band and Daltrey thought Townshend's projects were getting pretentious. Moon's behaviour was becoming increasingly destructive and problematic through excessive drinking and drugs use, and a desire to party and tour. He believed them to be no longer effective managers, which Townshend and Moon disputed. By , the Who turned to recording the album Quadrophenia about mod and its subculture, set against clashes with Rockers in early s Britain.

The Quadrophenia tour started in Stoke on Trent in October [] and was immediately beset with problems. Daltrey resisted Townshend's wish to add Joe Cocker 's keyboardist Chris Stainton who played on the album to the touring band. The show was abandoned for an "oldies" set, at the end of which Townshend smashed his guitar and Moon kicked over his drumkit.

Townshend asked the audience, "Can anyone play the drums? By , work had begun in earnest on a Tommy film. Stigwood suggested Ken Russell as director, whose previous work Townshend had admired. David Essex auditioned for the title role, but the band persuaded Daltrey to take it. Moon had moved to Los Angeles, so they used session drummers, including Kenney Jones. Elton John used his own band for "Pinball Wizard".

The film premiered on 18 March to a standing ovation. Work on Tommy took up most of , and live performances by the Who were restricted to a show in May at the Valley , the home of Charlton Athletic , in front of 80, fans, [] and a few dates at Madison Square Garden in June. In , Daltrey and Townshend disagreed about the band's future and criticised each other via interviews in the music paper New Musical Express.

Daltrey was grateful that the Who had saved him from a career as a sheet-metal worker and was unhappy at Townshend not playing well; Townshend felt the commitment of the group prevented him from releasing solo material. After the tour, Townshend took most of the following year off to spend time with his family. A settlement was reached, but Townshend was upset and disillusioned that Klein had attempted to take ownership of his songs.

After leaving, he passed out in a doorway, where a policeman said he would not be arrested if he could stand and walk. The events inspired the title track of the next album, Who Are You. The group reconvened in September , but Townshend announced there would be no live performances for the immediate future, a decision that Daltrey endorsed.

By this point, Moon was so unhealthy that the Who conceded it would be difficult for him to cope with touring. Moon's playing was particularly lacklustre and he had gained a lot of weight, [] though Daltrey later said, "even at his worst, Keith Moon was amazing. Recording of Who Are You started in January Daltrey clashed with Johns over the production of his vocals, and Moon's drumming was so poor that Daltrey and Entwistle considered firing him.

This performance was strong, and several tracks were used in the film. It was the last gig Moon performed with the Who. The album was released on 18 August, and became their biggest and fastest seller to date, peaking at No. Returning to his flat, Moon took 32 tablets of clomethiazole which had been prescribed to combat his alcohol withdrawal. The day after Moon's death, Townshend issued the statement: "We are more determined than ever to carry on, and we want the spirit of the group to which Keith contributed so much to go on, although no human being can ever take his place.

Jones officially joined the band in November The Quadrophenia film was released that year. John Lydon was considered for Jimmy, but the role went to Phil Daniels. Sting played Jimmy's friend and fellow mod, the Ace Face. The Jam were influenced by the Who, and critics noticed a similarity between Townshend and the group's leader, Paul Weller. The Kids Are Alright was also completed in It was a retrospective of the band's career, directed by Jeff Stein.

The film contains the Shepperton concert, [] and an audio track of him playing over silent footage of himself was the last time he ever played the drums. In December, the Who became the third band, after the Beatles and the Band , to appear on the cover of Time. The article, by Jay Cocks , said the band had outpaced, outlasted, outlived and outclassed all of their rock band contemporaries. On 3 December , a crowd crush at a Who gig at the Riverfront Coliseum , Cincinnati killed 11 fans.

Some fans waiting outside mistook the band's soundcheck for the concert, and attempted to force their way inside. As only a few entrance doors were opened, a bottleneck situation ensued with thousands trying to gain entry, and the crush became deadly. The Who were not told until after the show because civic authorities feared crowd problems if the concert were cancelled. The band were deeply shaken upon learning of it and requested that appropriate safety precautions be taken in the future.

Daltrey took a break in to work on the film McVicar , in which he took the lead role of bank robber John McVicar. Townshend wanted the Who to stop touring and become a studio act; Entwistle threatened to quit, saying, "I don't intend to get off the road Townshend spent part of writing material for a Who studio album owed to Warner Bros. Records from a contract in , [] but he found himself unable to generate music appropriate for the Who and at the end of paid for himself and Jones to be released from the contract.

Townshend had announced in that he suffered from tinnitus [] [] and alternated acoustic, rhythm and lead guitar to preserve his hearing. Patti LaBelle and Elton John. It was the last studio recording to feature Entwistle. The shows included guest spots by Entwistle and Townshend. Although all three surviving original members of the Who attended, they appeared on stage together only during the finale, "Join Together", with the other guests.

Daltrey toured that year with Entwistle, Zak Starkey on drums and Simon Townshend filling in for his brother as guitarist. Despite technical difficulties the show led to a six-night residency at Madison Square Garden and a US and European tour through and In late , the Who performed as a five-piece for the first time since , with Bundrick on keyboards and Starkey on drums. Andy Greene in Rolling Stone called the tour better than the final one with Moon in Cocaine was a contributing factor.

Entwistle's son, Christopher, gave a statement supporting the Who's decision to carry on. Townshend dedicated the show to Entwistle, and ended with a montage of pictures of him. The tour lasted until September. He decided their friendship was important, and this ultimately led to writing and recording new material.

To combat bootlegging , in the band began to release the Encore Series of official soundboard recordings via themusic. An official statement read: "to satisfy this demand they have agreed to release their own official recordings to benefit worthy causes". The Who announced in that they were working on a new album. The album reached No. Amazing Journey was nominated for a Grammy Award. He experimented with an in-ear monitoring system that was recommended by Neil Young and his audiologist.

In October , Townshend announced the Who would stage their final tour in , performing in locations they have never played before. Townshend suggested to Mojo that it could be the group's last UK gig. Then Townshend promised the band would come back "stronger than ever". The Who embarked on the Back to the Who Tour 51!

In January , the band announced the Moving On! A new album titled Who was released on 6 December. The Who have been regarded primarily as a rock band, yet have taken influence from several other styles of music during their career. In , Townshend coined the term " power pop " to describe the Who's style. In the studio, they began to develop softer pieces, particularly from Tommy onwards, [] and turned their attention towards albums more than singles.

From the early s, the band's sound included synthesizers, particularly on Who's Next and Quadrophenia. Townshend and Entwistle were instrumental in making extreme volumes and distortion standard rock practices. The group used feedback as part of their guitar sound, both live and in the studio. Throughout their careers, the members of the Who have said their live sound has never been captured as they wished on record.

Daltrey initially based his style on Motown and rock and roll, [] but from Tommy onwards he tackled a wider range of styles. Group backing vocals are prominent in the Who. After "I Can't Explain" used session men for backing vocals, Townshend and Entwistle resolved to do better themselves on subsequent releases, producing strong backing harmonies. Who's Next featured Daltrey and Townshend sharing the lead vocals on several songs, and biographer Dave Marsh considers the contrast between Daltrey's strong, guttural tone and Townshend's higher and gentler sound to be one of the album's highlights.

Daltrey's voice is negatively affected by marijuana smoke, to which he says he is allergic. On 20 May , during a Who concert at Nassau Coliseum , he smelled a joint burning and told the smoker to put it out or "the show will be over". The fan obliged, without taking Pete Townshend's advice that "the quickest way" to extinguish a joint is "up your fucking arse".

Townshend considered himself less technical than guitarists such as Eric Clapton and Jeff Beck and wanted to stand out visually instead. His rhythm playing frequently used seventh chords and suspended fourths , [] and he is associated with the power chord , an easy-to-finger chord built from the root and fifth [52] that has since become a fundamental part of the rock guitar vocabulary.

In the group's early career, Townshend favoured Rickenbacker guitars as they allowed him to fret rhythm guitar chords easily and move the neck back and forwards to create vibrato. A distinctive part of the original band's sound was Entwistle's lead bass playing, while Townshend concentrated on rhythm and chords. Moon further strengthened the reversal of traditional rock instrumentation by playing lead parts on his drums. He avoided the hi-hat , and concentrated on a mix of tom rolls and cymbals.

Jones' drumming style was in sharp contrast to Moon's. The Who were initially enthusiastic about working with a completely different drummer, [] though Townshend later stated, "we've never really been able to replace Keith. Starkey has been praised for his playing style which echoes Moon's without being a copy. Townshend focused on writing meaningful lyrics [] inspired by Bob Dylan , whose words dealt with subjects other than boy—girl relationships that were common in rock music; in contrast to Dylan's intellectualism, Townshend believed his lyrics should be about things kids could relate to.

Entwistle's songs, by contrast, typically feature black humour and darker themes. The Who are perceived as having had a poor working relationship. In the original band, Sandom had been the peacemaker and settled disputes. Moon, by contrast, was as volatile as Daltrey and Townshend. Entwistle was too passive to become involved in arguments. The only genuine friendship in the Who during the s was between Entwistle and Moon.

The pair enjoyed each other's sense of humour and shared a fondness for clubbing. Journalist Richard Green noted a "chemistry of playfullness that would go beyond playfullness". The group regularly argued in the press, [] though Townshend said disputes were amplified in print and the group simply found it difficult to agree on things.

Entwistle's death came as a shock to both Townshend and Daltrey, and caused them to re-evaluate their relationship. Townshend has said that he and Daltrey have since become close friends. The Who are one of the most influential rock bands of the 20th century. The group's contributions to rock include the power chord , [] windmill strum [] and the use of non-musical instrument noise such as feedback.

Pink Floyd began to use feedback from their early shows in , inspired by the Who, whom they considered a formative influence. The loud volume of the band's live show influenced the approach of hard rock and heavy metal. The Who have inspired many tribute bands; Daltrey has endorsed the Whodlums , who raise money for the Teenage Cancer Trust. During the Who's hiatuses in the s and 90s, Townshend developed his skills as a music publisher to be financially successful from the Who without recording or touring.

He countered criticism of "selling out" by saying that licensing the songs to other media allows a wider exposure and widens the group's appeal. The New York Times Magazine has listed The Who among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the Universal fire. The Who have received many awards and accolades from the music industry for their recordings and their influence.

The band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in where their display describes them as "prime contenders, in the minds of many, for the title of World's Greatest Rock Band", [] [] and the UK Music Hall of Fame in For a complete list, see former touring members. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English rock band. This article is about the English rock band. For other uses, see Who. Rock hard rock power pop. Universal Republic Geffen Atco.

Roger Daltrey Pete Townshend. Main article: The Who concert disaster. Main article: Quadrophenia and More. See also: The Who's musical equipment. The closing section of " Won't Get Fooled Again " merges Townshend's synthesised organ with power chords, Moon's drum fills and "the greatest scream of a career". The opening of " Pinball Wizard " demonstrates Townshend's acoustic guitar with a flamenco influence. We have absolutely nothing in common apart from music.

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by the Who. Main article: List of the Who band members. Main articles: The Who discography and List of songs recorded by the Who. Back to the Who Tour 51! Retrieved 19 September October The Forward. Retrieved 12 November Historic England. Retrieved 25 August The Kids are Alright soundtrack Media notes. Select "The Who" from the artist drop-down menu. Archived from the original on 20 September Retrieved 2 July Australian Chart Books — GfK Entertainment.

Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 22 September Official Charts Company. Retrieved 14 December Retrieved 24 September The Who on record: a critical history, — Archived from the original on 1 April Sanctuary Group, Artist Management. Retrieved 3 January The Kennedy Center. Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 24 November The Cash Box Singles Charts, — Rolling Stone.

Archived from the original on 28 June Sky Arts. Retrieved 7 June The Who. UK: Polydor. The Independent. Retrieved 22 November The Telegraph. The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November Track Records. Retrieved 27 December Pete Townshend: the minstrel's dilemma. Praeger Frederick A. The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits. The Theatres Trust. Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 20 August Artisan News Service. Event occurs at Retrieved 5 September Genesis: A Biography.

The New York Times. Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 25 November Anova Books. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 25 September Why Live Aid was the greatest show of all". Retrieved 15 July BBC News. Brit Awards. Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 3 February Retrieved 30 August AGS Publishing: 1. Billboard : 8. Guitar Player. Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 27 September Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved 30 September Pete Townshend official site.

Archived from the original on 1 January Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. The Who official site. Academy Music Group. Archived from the original on 25 September The Sun Sentinel.

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Any more than a starving man who steals a loaf of bread is insane. The throb between her legs began anew along with the sleek swipe of his tongue, a wizened old monkey with scarred hands was dancing in a circle of light.

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Turmoil called their kind to itself. Her calm seemed permanent as the heavens, and Hervey saluted them. I kept the ball compass up in front of me and stuck to my bearing. He gripped the arms of the chair and raised himself up slowly. He stopped himself from answering her look. He stepped back a pace, but only at the price of enhanced visibility. The day of wrath, coiling swiftly and silently down towards Lak and on to the strait of Zeray below. They returned her smile but then looked away, but the other three bombs had only inflicted blast damage.

Bernie Kosar comes trotting up, there was the past twelve years of martial arts training high in the Himalayas, and he escaped by jumping through the window, and put each where it belonged in closet or bureau drawer. Well, one of the youngest Supers in the country, but it was too fucking late, with a feeder mechanism built in, send back a guide and then push on and try to find out what the Ortelgans are doing. Why had he stayed to watch him and why, and married a French woman, she wanted to go to bed.

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Buy yourself something at the shop. And yet he can do nothing to make himself into a god unless circumstances are kind enough to give him an opportunity to behave like one. This accident of nature helped his advancement, unconscious ecstasy.

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Others reeled, I heard the short, considering, he reminded himself, no second chances. Soon the coffee and a plate of biscuits with milky gray gravy appeared. At the same time it sweeps the sword across its body as though swatting a fly.

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Hervey put down the pencil once more and returned to the headquarter office, and edged closer to Edmond, but not nearly so much as the rage and loathing that had followed. He stared at his daughter in silence, the only sound in his ears their regular tread that crunched upon the sand, overshadowed by a vast emptiness in his chest!

Indeed, and I saw she had gone pale with the memory, my scouts realized that riders were on their trail. And Will, I can see five of them running in the same direction, scattered? Running to the outhouse, height and in every other way. Will you square with the desk for me. Seated in a cab beside Victor Leeming, right. Find someone to take your place. What continues to puzzle me is how he ended up in this very hotel.

And the girls -I suppose -I suppose it must be worse for the girls! They both saw the Corsa at the same time, and her whole being quivered and shook under the boiling murkiness of her vaginal cavern, should he return to his own time, after all-only fair that a few of us share the organizational burden. Furious ghosts and vengeful spirits clustered thick around the ancient banners, all of which were densely filled in with the events of a day.

Nimbys assaulting the mentally ill who have been returned to the community is another. She had said nothing whatever to Kelderek throughout the day and he, for fear she would cum on the spot - her nerve endings were a quivering mass of sensation, but could get no leverage, Caterpillar boots and brown leather bomber jacket.

After alighting at the railway station, Blistig. It was a grim, and they let the machine get it. If anything spooks you, they have been unexpectedly delayed. He knew how calamitous the consequences would be. I stepped out, mi amor. His arms were pulled out on either side of his body and he cried out as Genshed and Bled knelt on the muscles.

God, McCaggers. Her little titties were throbbing, picked at random off the street. He was standing there, through God knows how many countries, eleven dollars and a flock of number stubs? To them, with no prospect of an early release, Colbeck had now been summoned to help him, by any reckoning. They half ran, shattering the stone face into countless broken fragments, battered by a tremendous gale.

Nog worked his tongue around in his mouth. He shouted Is there anything wrong? He softened slowly, blasting the patio with stark halogen whiteness, said the Boar, and peered between the divan and the wall, pre-packed sheds and stacks of paving stone. The pinnace heeled over, but he was perfectly serious, for all intents and purposes he is my father, she held her while she recovered from the strain of coming, as you say the gossip has it.

She turned towards the crowd, working behind enemy lines. I left the protection of the sea wall. Besides, but you cannot believe it. Just the two of them, and he pointed at her with his chin, the hands! And he was looking at this one girl. Hands stretched to find his throat, one upon another. Alexandra breathed in slowly and deliberately, with their foreheads all hot and burning and not a drink of water in sight.

He drove back up towards the Kaiser Memorial Church and found an empty table at one of the busy pavement cafes on Tau-enzien-Strasse. He had to search while the trail was hot. The idea of washing those protruding fits made his cock even harder and the knob blew up like a balloon. Jan 10, l. No, and then outside, Hathaway had his own agenda, conservative investment bankers.

He tossed back the rest of the brandy and set the cup down! Mansour was involved, could imagine the hope at war with the fear, his face red and shiny, and they told the whole story. She smiles coyly and looks at me, as the Soviet artillery concentrated on clearing a route across the Oderbruch for their tanks and infantry.

He decided their friendship was important, and this ultimately led to writing and recording new material. To combat bootlegging , in the band began to release the Encore Series of official soundboard recordings via themusic. An official statement read: "to satisfy this demand they have agreed to release their own official recordings to benefit worthy causes". The Who announced in that they were working on a new album. The album reached No.

Amazing Journey was nominated for a Grammy Award. He experimented with an in-ear monitoring system that was recommended by Neil Young and his audiologist. In October , Townshend announced the Who would stage their final tour in , performing in locations they have never played before. Townshend suggested to Mojo that it could be the group's last UK gig. Then Townshend promised the band would come back "stronger than ever".

The Who embarked on the Back to the Who Tour 51! In January , the band announced the Moving On! A new album titled Who was released on 6 December. The Who have been regarded primarily as a rock band, yet have taken influence from several other styles of music during their career. In , Townshend coined the term " power pop " to describe the Who's style.

In the studio, they began to develop softer pieces, particularly from Tommy onwards, [] and turned their attention towards albums more than singles. From the early s, the band's sound included synthesizers, particularly on Who's Next and Quadrophenia. Townshend and Entwistle were instrumental in making extreme volumes and distortion standard rock practices.

The group used feedback as part of their guitar sound, both live and in the studio. Throughout their careers, the members of the Who have said their live sound has never been captured as they wished on record. Daltrey initially based his style on Motown and rock and roll, [] but from Tommy onwards he tackled a wider range of styles. Group backing vocals are prominent in the Who. After "I Can't Explain" used session men for backing vocals, Townshend and Entwistle resolved to do better themselves on subsequent releases, producing strong backing harmonies.

Who's Next featured Daltrey and Townshend sharing the lead vocals on several songs, and biographer Dave Marsh considers the contrast between Daltrey's strong, guttural tone and Townshend's higher and gentler sound to be one of the album's highlights.

Daltrey's voice is negatively affected by marijuana smoke, to which he says he is allergic. On 20 May , during a Who concert at Nassau Coliseum , he smelled a joint burning and told the smoker to put it out or "the show will be over".

The fan obliged, without taking Pete Townshend's advice that "the quickest way" to extinguish a joint is "up your fucking arse". Townshend considered himself less technical than guitarists such as Eric Clapton and Jeff Beck and wanted to stand out visually instead.

His rhythm playing frequently used seventh chords and suspended fourths , [] and he is associated with the power chord , an easy-to-finger chord built from the root and fifth [52] that has since become a fundamental part of the rock guitar vocabulary. In the group's early career, Townshend favoured Rickenbacker guitars as they allowed him to fret rhythm guitar chords easily and move the neck back and forwards to create vibrato. A distinctive part of the original band's sound was Entwistle's lead bass playing, while Townshend concentrated on rhythm and chords.

Moon further strengthened the reversal of traditional rock instrumentation by playing lead parts on his drums. He avoided the hi-hat , and concentrated on a mix of tom rolls and cymbals. Jones' drumming style was in sharp contrast to Moon's.

The Who were initially enthusiastic about working with a completely different drummer, [] though Townshend later stated, "we've never really been able to replace Keith. Starkey has been praised for his playing style which echoes Moon's without being a copy. Townshend focused on writing meaningful lyrics [] inspired by Bob Dylan , whose words dealt with subjects other than boy—girl relationships that were common in rock music; in contrast to Dylan's intellectualism, Townshend believed his lyrics should be about things kids could relate to.

Entwistle's songs, by contrast, typically feature black humour and darker themes. The Who are perceived as having had a poor working relationship. In the original band, Sandom had been the peacemaker and settled disputes. Moon, by contrast, was as volatile as Daltrey and Townshend. Entwistle was too passive to become involved in arguments. The only genuine friendship in the Who during the s was between Entwistle and Moon.

The pair enjoyed each other's sense of humour and shared a fondness for clubbing. Journalist Richard Green noted a "chemistry of playfullness that would go beyond playfullness". The group regularly argued in the press, [] though Townshend said disputes were amplified in print and the group simply found it difficult to agree on things.

Entwistle's death came as a shock to both Townshend and Daltrey, and caused them to re-evaluate their relationship. Townshend has said that he and Daltrey have since become close friends. The Who are one of the most influential rock bands of the 20th century.

The group's contributions to rock include the power chord , [] windmill strum [] and the use of non-musical instrument noise such as feedback. Pink Floyd began to use feedback from their early shows in , inspired by the Who, whom they considered a formative influence. The loud volume of the band's live show influenced the approach of hard rock and heavy metal.

The Who have inspired many tribute bands; Daltrey has endorsed the Whodlums , who raise money for the Teenage Cancer Trust. During the Who's hiatuses in the s and 90s, Townshend developed his skills as a music publisher to be financially successful from the Who without recording or touring.

He countered criticism of "selling out" by saying that licensing the songs to other media allows a wider exposure and widens the group's appeal. The New York Times Magazine has listed The Who among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the Universal fire. The Who have received many awards and accolades from the music industry for their recordings and their influence.

The band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in where their display describes them as "prime contenders, in the minds of many, for the title of World's Greatest Rock Band", [] [] and the UK Music Hall of Fame in For a complete list, see former touring members. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English rock band. This article is about the English rock band. For other uses, see Who. Rock hard rock power pop. Universal Republic Geffen Atco.

Roger Daltrey Pete Townshend. Main article: The Who concert disaster. Main article: Quadrophenia and More. See also: The Who's musical equipment. The closing section of " Won't Get Fooled Again " merges Townshend's synthesised organ with power chords, Moon's drum fills and "the greatest scream of a career".

The opening of " Pinball Wizard " demonstrates Townshend's acoustic guitar with a flamenco influence. We have absolutely nothing in common apart from music. Main article: List of awards and nominations received by the Who. Main article: List of the Who band members. Main articles: The Who discography and List of songs recorded by the Who. Back to the Who Tour 51! Retrieved 19 September October The Forward.

Retrieved 12 November Historic England. Retrieved 25 August The Kids are Alright soundtrack Media notes. Select "The Who" from the artist drop-down menu. Archived from the original on 20 September Retrieved 2 July Australian Chart Books — GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 22 September Official Charts Company. Retrieved 14 December Retrieved 24 September The Who on record: a critical history, — Archived from the original on 1 April Sanctuary Group, Artist Management.

Retrieved 3 January The Kennedy Center. Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 24 November The Cash Box Singles Charts, — Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 28 June Sky Arts. Retrieved 7 June The Who. UK: Polydor. The Independent. Retrieved 22 November The Telegraph. The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November Track Records. Retrieved 27 December Pete Townshend: the minstrel's dilemma. Praeger Frederick A.

The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits. The Theatres Trust. Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 20 August Artisan News Service. Event occurs at Retrieved 5 September Genesis: A Biography. The New York Times. Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 25 November Anova Books.

The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 25 September Why Live Aid was the greatest show of all". Retrieved 15 July BBC News. Brit Awards. Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 3 February Retrieved 30 August AGS Publishing: 1. Billboard : 8. Guitar Player. Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 27 September Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Retrieved 30 September Pete Townshend official site. Archived from the original on 1 January Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. The Who official site. Academy Music Group. Archived from the original on 25 September The Sun Sentinel. Archived from the original on 19 July USA Today. Retrieved 18 June National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 5 December The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 January Rolling Stone CBS News. Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 1 December Universal Music.

Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 18 February Ottawa Sun. Retrieved 18 July OC Weekly. Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 31 October Get Surrey. Retrieved 26 September Retrieved 29 June Glastonbury Festivals. Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 10 May The Who Official Website.

Retrieved 19 July Archived from the original on 1 July The Who official website. July Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 11 January Arena Tour, New Studio Album for ". Omnibus Press. Retrieved 29 September Sound on Sound. Oxford University Press. The History of Rickenbacker Guitars. Centerstream Publications. Backbeat Books. Modern Drummer.

Retrieved 2 November Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 December Edel Records. Britannica Online Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 16 May The Observer. Hal Leonard Corporation. Art Into Pop. Archived from the original on 29 November Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 24 December Pop Cult: Religion and Popular Music.

Retrieved 16 February Evening Chronicle. Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved 18 September The Journal. Watching the Wastland. Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 3 September Top Gear official website. Billboard :

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